Tuesday, 20 April 2010

Speech by His Holiness Pope Pius XII

Speech by
His Holiness Pope Pius XII

the conclusion of the work of 1st International Congress
Pastoral Liturgy of Assisi September 22, 1956

The Liturgy and the Church
The Liturgy and the Lord
Actio Christi
Praesentia Christi
Infinita and divina Maiestas Christi

You have asked us to send you the floor to close the International Congress of Pastoral Liturgy, which was just held in Assisi. It is very much that we respond to your request and we welcome you. If we compare the current situation with the liturgical movement that was thirty years ago, there he has done as a major improvement in extension and depth. The interest in the liturgy, the practical achievements and active participation of the faithful have taken a development that would have been difficult to anticipate at this time. The main impetus, both in doctrine and in practical application, came from the hierarchy and, in particular, Our Predecessor St. Pius X, which by its Motu Proprio "Abhinc duos annos' 23 October 1913 (Acta Ap Sedis, a. 5, 1913, p. 449-451) gave impetus to the liturgical movement decisive. The faithful people received these instructions with recognition and he was prepared to respond; liturgists began to work diligently, and soon blossomed initiatives interesting and fruitful, although some deviations sometimes called a recovery in share ecclesiastical authority. Among the many documents published recently in this regard that we Suffice to mention three: the Encyclical Mediator Dei, De Sacra Liturgia 20 November 1947 (Acta Ap Sedis, a. 39, 1947, p. 522-595), the new mechanism of Holy Week, dated November 16, 1955 (Acta Ap Sedis, a. 47, 1955, p. 838-847), who helped the faithful to better understand and participate more in love, suffering and glorification of our Lord, and finally the Encyclical Musica sacra 25 December 1955 (Acta Ap Sedis, s. 48, 1956, p. 5-25). The liturgical movement thus appeared as a sign of the providential dispositions of God in this time, as a passage from the Holy Spirit in His Church, to bring more men into the mysteries of faith and the riches of grace which flow from the active participation of the faithful in the liturgical life.

The Congress, which ends today, was precisely to show the inestimable value of the liturgy for the sanctification of souls and therefore to the pastoral action of the Church. You have studied this aspect of the liturgy, as manifested in history and currently continues to unfold, you have also examined how it is based on the nature of things is to say how it follows elements of the liturgy. Your Congress therefore included a study of historical development, reflections on the current situation and review the objectives to be achieved in the future and the means to take him there. Having carefully considered your work program, We make wishes for the new seed, added to those of the past will yield a rich harvest for the benefit of individuals and the whole Church.

In that speech, instead of you present more detailed standards on which the Holy See has already pronounced enough, we have considered more useful to a few important points that are currently being discussed in-dogmatic and liturgical We who are closer to heart. We shall group these considerations under two titles, which are mere guidelines rather than the same themes of our developments: the Liturgy and the Church, the Liturgy and the Lord.

I. The Liturgy and the Church

As we have said in the Encyclical Mediator Dei the liturgy is a vital function of the whole Church, not just a group and a specific movement. Sacra Liturgia integrum constituit publicum cultum Mystici Iesu Christi corporis, capitis eius membrorumque NEMP[1] (A.A.S., s. 39, 1947, p. 528-529). The Mystical Body of the Lord saw the truth of Christ and the graces that spread through members, inspire and unite among themselves and with their leader. That is the idea of St. Paul when he said in his first Epistle to the Corinthians: Omnia vestra sunt, your autem Christi, Christus autem Dei[2] (1 Cor. 3, 23). Everything is directed toward God, his service and glory. The church, filled with gifts and life of God, a book of intimate and spontaneous movement to worship and praise of the infinite God and the liturgy, as a society makes him the worship that she must.

[1] The liturgy is the full worship of the Mystical Body of Jesus Christ, that is to say the Head and its members.

[2] All is yours, you are in Christ, Christ is God.

At this liturgy unique individual members, those possessed of the power hierarchy as the congregation brings all that he has received from God, all the resources of his mind, his heart and his works. The first hierarchy, which holds the depositum fidei and depositum gratiae. In depositum fidei the truth of Christ contained in Scripture and Tradition, it draws the great mysteries of faith and puts it in the liturgy, especially the Trinity, the Incarnation and Redemption. But it is difficult to find the truth of Christianity that is expressed in some way in the liturgy, whether the readings of the Old and New Testament during the Mass and the Divine Office, or wealth that the mind and heart find in the Psalms. The solemn liturgical ceremonies are also a profession of faith in action, they realize the great truths of the faith in the inscrutable designs of God's generosity and inexhaustible favors against men, love and mercy the heavenly Father to the world, for whose salvation he sent his son and handed him over to death. Thus the Church communicates in abundance in the liturgy of the treasures depositum fidei the truth of Christ. Through the liturgy as the spreading of treasures depositum gratiae that the Lord sent his Apostles: sanctifying grace, virtues, gifts, the power to baptize, to confer the Holy Spirit to forgive sins by repentance, to devote priests. In the heart of the liturgy is the celebration of the Eucharist, sacrifice and meal is in itself also will give all the sacraments and, sacramentals, the Church greatly multiply the benefits of grace in the most diverse circumstances. The hierarchy also extends its care to all that helps make it more beautiful and more dignified liturgical ceremonies, whether religious places, furniture, liturgical vestments, sacred music and sacred art .

If the Hierarchy liturgy communicates truth and grace of Christ, the faithful of their next task is to receive them, to consent to all their souls, turning them into life values. Everything that is offered, the graces of the sacrifice of the altar, the sacraments and sacramentals, they accept them, not passively, simply by letting them flow into them, but with their entire working will and all their forces, and especially by participating in the liturgical or less in each session with enthusiasm. They have contributed to a large extent and continue to contribute a constant effort to increase the external pomp of worship, building churches and chapels, to decorate, enhance the beauty of liturgical ceremonies by all the splendors of the sacred art.

The contribution that the hierarchy and the faithful bring to the liturgy does not add up as two separate amounts, but represent the collaborative efforts of one organization that acts as a single living being. The pastors and the flock, the Church teaching and the Church taught to form a single body of Christ. So there is no reason to maintain the distrust, rivalry, opposition or latent, either in thought or in the way of speaking or acting. Among the members of one body, must prevail above all harmony, unity, cooperation. It is in this unity that the Church prays, offers, is sanctified, and we can rightly say that the liturgy is the work of the whole Church.

But we must add: the liturgy is not whole Church; it does not exhaust the scope of its activities. Already, next to public worship, the community, there is room for private worship, that the individual makes to God in his secret heart or expressed by external acts, and has so many variants that are Christians, although it carries the same faith and the same grace of Christ. This form of worship, the Church not only tolerated, but she fully recognizes and recommends, without detracting from the primacy of liturgical worship.

But when we say that the liturgy does not exhaust the scope of activities of the Church, we think especially his teaching duties and pastoral care, the Pascite which is in vobis Dei gregem[3] (1 Petr. 5, 2). We recalled the role that the Magisterium repository of truth of Christ has the liturgy, the influence of government power over it is also clear, since it belongs to the Pope to recognize the rites in force, to introduce and set the new order of worship, and to the Bishops of vigilant to what is seen on the canonical prescriptions divine worship (Acta Ap Sedis, a.39, 1947, p. 544). But the functions of education and government extend even beyond. It suffices to realize, take a look at the Canon Law and what he says the Pope, the Roman Congregations, the Bishops, councils, the Magisterium and church discipline. They reached the same conclusion by observing the life of the Church, and Our two speeches of May 31 and November 2, 1954 on the threefold mission of the Bishop, we have explicitly highlighted the extent of his duties, which not limited to education and government, but include the rest of human activity to the extent of moral and religious interests are at stake (Acta Ap Sedis, s. 46, 1954, p. 313-317, 666-677).

[3] Tend the flock of God entrusted to you.

So if the tasks and interests of the Church are so universal, the priests and the faithful will keep their way of thinking and acting to fall into the tunnel vision or understanding. Our Encyclical Mediator Dei had already recovered some erroneous statements, which tended either to direct the religious education and pastoral care in one direction only liturgical, or raise barriers to the liturgical movement that did not understand. In fact, there is no divergence between the objective purpose of the liturgy and the other functions of the Church in the diversity of opinions, it is real, but still does not insurmountable obstacles. These considerations will suffice to show, we hope that the liturgy is the work of the whole Church and all believers as members of the Mystical Body must love, appreciate and take part, including but that the tasks of the Church extend far beyond.

II. The Liturgy and the Lord

We now wish to consider in particular the liturgy of the Mass and the Lord who is both priest and offering. Because of inaccuracies and misunderstandings emerging here and there about particular issues, we shall say a word actio Christi[4], The praesentia Christi[5] and theinfinita and divina Maiestas Christi[6].

[4] the action of Christ. [5] the presence of Christ. [6] the infinite and divine majesty of Christ.

1. "Actio Christi.

The liturgy of the Mass as a significant purpose of expressing the greatness of the mystery which it does, and current efforts tend to involve the faithful a way as active and intelligent as possible. While this goal is justified, it may cause a decline in deference, if it diverts attention from the main action to direct it to the brilliance of other ceremonies.

What is the main action of the eucharistic sacrifice? We talked about it explicitly in the speech of November 2, 1954 (Acta Ap Sedis, s. 46, 1954, p. 668-670). We cition first the teaching of the Council of Trent: In divino hoc sacrificio, quod in Missa peragitur idem ille Christus continetur incruente immolatur and that in ara crucis semel is cruenta obtulit ipsum enim eademque is ... Una hostia, idem nunc offerens sacerdotum ministerio, which ipsum tunc in cruce obtulit, offerendi sola ratione diversa[7] (Conc. Trid., Sess. XXII, cap. 2). And we pursued in these terms: Ithaca celebrans sacerdos, personam Christi Geren, sacrificat, isk solus, non populus, not clerici not quidem priests, who walk religioseque sacris inserviunt operandi; hi quamvis omnes in partes habere sacrificio activas quasdam possint and habeant [8] (Acta Ap Sedis, RS, p. 668). Then we pointed out that, without distinguishing between the question of the participation of celebrating the fruits of the sacrifice of the Mass and of the nature of the action that he poses, it was concluded: Idem esse unius celebrationem Missae, cui centum religioso priests Centum atque cum obsequio adstent Miss a Centum sacerdotibus celebrates[9]. From this statement, we said: Tamquam opiniones error REIC debet[10]. And we added in explanation: Quoad sacrificii Eucharistic oblationem, tot sunt Christi Summit actiones Sacerdote, quot sunt priests officiants, priests minimal vero quot sunt episcopi aut Missam sacrifice presbyteri celebrantis audientes pie; hi enim, cum sacro intersunt, nequaquam sacrificantis Christi personam and Sustinente agunt, sed sunt comparanda christifidelibus Laicis which sacrificio adsunt[11] (Acta Ap Sedis, RS, p. 669). About the Congress liturgical We said the same occasion: Hi coetus interdum propriam sequuntur regulam, ita scilicet ut unus tantum peragat sacrum, alii vero (sive omnes sive Plurima) Huici united in sacrosanct intersint eoque sacram synaxim e manu celebrantis Sumant. Ex hoc quod if the just and rationabile causa fiat ... obnitendum not is not agendi dummodo Huici modo iam above subsistence error has Nobis memoratus[12]That is to say, the error on the equivalence between the celebration of Masses by one hundred and one hundred priests of a Mass at which a hundred priests attended religiously.

[7] In the divine sacrifice which is accomplished in the mass is contained and immolated in a bloodless the same Christ who on the altar of the cross offered once for all so bloody ... It is indeed a single host, it is the same person who currently offered by the ministry of priests who then offered himself on the cross. Only way to afford is different.

[8] The priest celebrant, representing Christ, the sacrifices he and he alone, not the people, they are not clerics, they are not even the priests who assist the celebrant reverently, although all these can and must take an active part in the sacrifice.

[9] The celebration of a Mass attended by one hundred priests religiously equivalent to a hundred Masses celebrated by one hundred priests.

[10] It must be rejected as a misconception.

[11] With respect to the offering of the Eucharistic sacrifice, there are many actions of Christ the High Priest of priests there to celebrate, not to listen reverently to the Mass the bishop or priest to celebrate, they law in fact when they attend Mass, do not represent Christ in the act of sacrifice, but they are compared to lay people who attend mass.

[12] These meetings sometimes follow special regulations, so that a single priest celebrating the Mass and the other (or all or very many) to attend this Mass to receive Communion and single hand of the celebrant. If this is done for a just cause and reasonable ... there has not oppose it, provided that the error pointed out by us earlier is not the cause of such a course.

From this central element of the Eucharistic sacrifice is when Christ comes as Ipsum is offerens, to borrow the words of the Council of Trent (Sess. XXII, cap. 2). This happens at the consecration when, in the same act of transubstantiation effected by the Lord (cf. Conc. Trid. Sessio XIII, cap. 4 and 3), the priest celebrant is personam Christi geren. Even if the consecration takes place without pomp and simplicity, it is the focal point of the entire liturgy of the sacrifice, the central point of thecuius actio Christi personam Gerit sacerdos celebrans [13], Or priests concelebrating in cases of genuine concelebrated.

[13] The action of Christ represented by the priest celebrant.

Recent events give us the opportunity to clarify some points about this. When the consecration of bread and wine is made valid, the action of Christ himself is accomplished. Even if everything that follows could be done, however, nothing essential will be missing from the offering of the Lord.

When the consecration is completed, theoblatio hostiae super altare positae[14] can be made and is made by the priest celebrant, the church, other priests, for every believer. But this action is not actio ipsius Christi ipsius personam per sacerdotem sustinentem and gerentem[15]. In reality the action of the priest is consecrating of Christ, acting through its Minister. In the case of a concelebrated Mass in the true sense of the word, Christ, instead of acting by a single minister, acts by many. By cons, in the common celebration of mere ceremony, which could equally be caused by a layman, there is no simultaneous consecration, and then it raises an important question: "What for and what action is required outside for there really concelebration and simultaneous consecration? "

[14] The offering of the victim on the altar.

[15] The action of Christ himself by the ministry of the priest who represents him.

Recall in this regard what we said in Our Apostolic Constitution Episcopalis consecrationis 30 November 1944 (Acta Ap Sedis, s. 37, 1945, p. 131-132). We determined that in both the episcopal bishops accompanying the Consecrator, must intend to devote the Chosen, and they must therefore ask the external actions and say the words, in which power and grace to transmit are served and transmitted. It is not enough that they will unite with that of their principal Consecrator and say they are their words and actions. They should ask themselves these actions and say the essential words.

This applies even in the concelebrated literally. It is not enough to have and demonstrate a willingness to endorse the words and actions of the celebrant. The concelebrants themselves have said about the bread and wine: "This is my Body", "This is My Blood", otherwise they concelebration is purely ceremonial.

So it is not possible to state that "the only decisive question ultimately is how far the personal, sustained by grace, that we take this offering worship, increases participation in cross and the grace of Christ, unites us to Himself and among ourselves. " This way of asking the wrong question, we have already rejected the remarks of November 2, 1954, but some theologians can not acquiesce. We repeat it: the crucial question (for the concelebrated as the Mass of a single priest) is not knowing what benefit derives from the soul, but what is the nature of the act which applies: the priest as minister of Christ, or is it not theactio Christi ipsum sacrificantis and offerentis[16].

[16] The action of Christ offering Himself in sacrifice.

Similarly for the sacraments, it does not know which is the fruit produced by them, but if the essential elements of the sacramental sign (the position of the sign by the Minister himself, who performs the gestures and utters the words with intent quod facit Ecclesia saltem faciendi [17]) Have been validly raised. Also in celebration and concelebrated must see, if, with intent necessary inner, the officiant performs external action and speaks the words above, which constitute theactio Christi ipsum sacrificantis and offerentis. This is not true, when the priest does not comment on the bread and wine the Lord's words: "This is my body", "This is My Blood."

[17] ... at least do what the Church.

2. "Praesentia Christi.

Just as the altar and the sacrifice dominate the liturgical worship, we must say of the life of Christ, it is entirely controlled by the sacrifice of the cross. The words of the angel to his foster father: Salvum faciet populum suum has peccatis eorum[18] (Mt.1, 21), those of Jean-Baptiste Ecce Agnus Dei, ecce outcry that peccatum mundi[19] (Io1, 29), those of Christ himself to Nicodemus: Exaltari oportet filium hominis, ut omnis that credit in ipsum, habeat vitam aeternam ...[20] (Io3, 14-15), to his disciples: Baptismo ... habeo baptizari and quomodo coarctor usquedum perficiatur ? [21] (Luke.,12, 50), and especially those of the Last Supper and Calvary, everything indicates that the center of thought and life of the Lord, was the cross and offering himself to the Father to reconcile men with God and save them.

[18] He will save His people from their sins.

[19] Behold the Lamb of God, behold Him who taketh away the sin of the world.

[20] It is necessary that the Son of man be lifted up, that whoever believes in him ... have eternal life.

[21] I have to receive baptism, and how I am in agony until the ale I received!

But who offers the sacrifice, is it not somehow even greater than the sacrifice itself? We also want-now talk of the Lord himself, and first draw your attention to the fact that in the Eucharist the Church has the Lord with his flesh and blood, body and soul, and divinity. The Council of Trent solemnly defined in XIIIe Session can. 1, just in addition to their literal meaning, clear and unequivocal words of Jesus, to reach the same conclusion: "Take and eat! This is my Body, which will be given for you "Take and drink, this is my Blood which is poured out for you." And St. Paul's first letter to the Corinthians (1Cor.11, 23-25) uses the same terms as simple and clear.

Among Catholics, there is, in this regard, no doubt, no diversity of opinion. But when theological speculation began to discuss how Christ is present in the Eucharist, appear on many points of serious disagreement. We do not want to enter into these controversies speculative but We wish to indicate certain limits and insist on a fundamental principle of interpretation, which causes us to forget some concerns.

The speculation must rule that the literal meaning of texts of Scripture, faith and the teaching of the Church are not on the science system and theoretical considerations, it is science that must comply with revelation, and not vice versa. When a philosophical distorts the natural sense of a revealed truth is that it is not correct, or we do not use it correctly. This principle finds its application in the doctrine of real presence.

Some theologians, while accepting the Council's teaching on the Real Presence and transubstantiation, interpret those words of Christ and of the Council so that it remains the presence of Christ, a sort of stripped of its envelope natural content. In their view, the essence of current species of bread and wine is "the Lord in heaven," with which the species have a relationship supposedly real and essential presence and composure. This speculative interpretation raises serious objections, when this be sufficient, because the meaning of the Christian faithful, constant catechetical teaching of the Church, the terms of the Council, especially the Lord's words require that the Eucharist contains the Lord himself. The sacramental species are not the Lord, even if they have with the substance of Christ in heaven so-called essential relationship of capacity and presence. The Lord said: "This is My Body" This is My Blood! " He did not say: "This is a sensible appearance which means the presence of my body and my blood. Without doubt, it could be sensitive to signs that a real relation of presence to be effective and sensitive signs of the sacramental grace, but this is the essence of "species eucharisticae" not of sacramental efficacy. We can therefore assume that the theory we just discussed, fully entitled to make Christ's words, that the presence of Christ in the Eucharist means nothing more and this is sufficient to be able to say with truth of the Eucharist "Dominus is" (see Joan., XXI, 7).

Without doubt, the mass of the faithful is not capable of understanding the problems and tests hedge difficult of explanation on the nature of Christ's presence. The Roman Catechism also asked not to discuss these issues before them (see Catech. Rom., pars II, cap. IV, n. 43 ff.), But it does not mention or propose the theory outlined above, much less he says it exhausts the meaning of Christ's words and explains them fully. You can continue to look for scientific explanations and interpretations, but they should not go out, so to speak, the Christ of the Eucharist and to leave in the Eucharistic tabernacle that maintaining a relationship supposedly real and essential with true that the Lord is in heaven.

It is surprising that those who are not content of the theory outlined above, are ranked amongst the opponents among the "physicists' unscientific, or that they do not hesitate to report about the design itself Scientific-called Christ's presence: "This truth is not for the masses."

With these considerations, we must add some remarks on the tabernacle. As we said earlier: "The Lord is somewhat larger than the altar and sacrifice", could we say now: "The Tabernacle, home of the Lord descended among his people, he is superior to altar and the sacrifice? " The altar outweighs the tabernacle, because it offers the sacrifice of the Lord. The tabernacle has undoubtedly Sacramentum enduring substance; but it is not a altare permanent, because the Lord as a sacrifice on the altar during the celebration of Holy Mass, but not after or outside Mass.. In the tabernacle, for cons, it is this last as long as the consecrated species, but does not afford the time. It has the full right to distinguish between the offering of the sacrifice of the Mass and the Cultus latreuticus offered to the God-man hidden in the Eucharist. A decision by the Sacred Congregation of Rites dated July 27, 1927 limited to a minimum exposure of the Blessed Sacrament during Mass (Acta Ap Sedis, s. 19, 1927, p. 289), but easily explained by the desire to maintain usually separated the act of sacrifice and worship of simple worship, so that the faithful understand clearly the character.

However, more important than the awareness of this diversity is that of unity: it is one and the same Lord, who is sacrificed at the altar and the tabernacle honored and then spreads its blessings. If we were convinced, would avoid many difficulties, we keep to overstate the significance of one over the other and oppose the decisions of the Holy See.

The Council of Trent has explained what provisions of mind we should have vis-à-vis the Holy Sacrament Si quis Dixerit, Christum in sancto sacramento Eucharistiae unigenitum filium Dei non esse cultural latreutico, etiam externo, adorandum, atque ideo nee festiva Peculiar celebritate venerandum, neque in processionibus, secundum Ecclesiae sanctae laudabilem and universalem ritum and consuetudinem, sollemniter circumgestandum, vel non publice ut adoretur, populo proponendum and Adorator eius esse idololatras: anathema sit (Conc. Trid., Sessio XIII, can. 6). Si quis Dixerit not licere sacram Eucharistiam in sacrario reservar, sed statim post consecrationem adstantibus Necessario distribuendam; not licere aut, ut illa ad infirmos honorific deferatur: anathema sit[22] (Conc. Trid., RS, Can. 7). Who joins the heart of this doctrine did not think to object against the presence of the tabernacle on the altar.

[22] If anyone says that Christ, only Son of God, should not be adored in the Blessed Sacrament of the Eucharist from a cult latria, even outside, and thus should not be honored with a special celebration, not given a solemn procession, according to the rite and praiseworthy custom of holy and universal Church, nor proposed publicly people to be adored, and that his adorers are idolaters, let him be anathema.

If someone says it is not lawful to keep the Holy Eucharist, but they must necessarily be distributed to those present immediately after the consecration, or he is not allowed to keep for wear with honor the sick, let him be anathema.

In the Instruction of the Holy Office Arte sacra 30 June 1952 (Acta Ap Sedis, a. 44, 1952, p. 542-546), the Holy See insists, among other things, on this point: Districte mandate Suprema haec S. Congregatio ut sancte serventur praescripta canonum 1268 § 2 and 1269, § 1: "SSMA Eucharistia custodiatur in praecellentissimo nobilissimo ecclesiae ac ac loco PROINDER regularities in maiore altar, nisi aliud venerationi and cultui tanti sacramenti commodius and Decentius videatur ... SSMA Eucharistia servari debet in tabernaculo inamovibili in media parte altaris Pósito"[23] (Acta Ap Sedis, RS, p. 544).

[23] This Supreme Sacred Congregation rigorously ordered that the requirements are strictly observed the guns in 1268 and 1269 § 2 § 1: "The holy Eucharist is kept in place the most honorable and noble of the church regularly to master altar, unless another does seem more convenient and decent to the veneration and worship of so great a sacrament ... The Holy Eucharist must be stored in a removable tent in the middle of the altar. "

It is not so much the physical presence of the tabernacle on the altar, a trend which we wish to draw your attention, that of a lesser regard for the presence and action of Christ in the tabernacle. We are pleased with the sacrifice of the altar and it diminishes the importance of the One who does. But the person of the Lord must occupy the center of worship, for it is that unifies the relations of the altar and tabernacle and gives them their meaning.

It is first through the sacrifice of the altar as the Lord makes himself present in the Eucharist and the tabernacle, it is only as memoria sacrificii and passionis suae[24]. Separate the tabernacle of the altar is to separate two things that must remain united by their origin and nature. The way in which we could place the tabernacle on the altar without preventing the celebration facing the people, can receive various solutions, on which experts give their opinion. The key is to be understood that the same Lord who is present on the altar and the tabernacle.

[24] Memorial of his Sacrifice and Passion.

One might also note the attitude of the Church regarding certain practices of piety: visits to the Blessed Sacrament, she urges, the Forty Hours prayer or "perpetual adoration, holy hour, transport solemn communion to the sick, the processions of the Blessed Sacrament. The liturgist the most enthusiastic and the more convinced must understand and guess what is the Lord in the tabernacle for the faithful deeply religious, be they ordinary people or educated. It is their adviser, their consolation, their strength, their action, their hope in life as in death. Not content to let the faithful come to the Lord in the tabernacle, the liturgical movement will therefore seek to attract more and more.

3. "Infinita and divina Maiestas Christi.

The third and last point, that we would like to discuss is that of theinfinita and Divina Maiestas of Christ, as reflected in the words: Christus Deus. While the Incarnate Word is Lord and Savior of mankind, but he is and remains the Word, the infinite God. In the symbol of St. Athanasius is said: Dominus noster Jesus Christus Dei Filius, Deus Homo, and is [25]. The humanity of Christ also has the right to worship latria because of his hypostatic union with the Word, but his divinity is the reason and the source of this cult. As the divinity of Christ can not it remain somewhat on the periphery of the liturgical thought. It is normal that we go ad patrem per Christum, since Christ is the mediator between God and men. But it is not only Mediator; It is also, in the Trinity, equal with the Father and the Holy Spirit. Suffice it to recall the great prologue of the Gospel of John: "The Word was God ... All things were made by Him. And nothing has been done, has been without him" (Io., 1, 1-3). Christ is the First and the Last, the Alpha and the Omega. At the end of the world, when all enemies have been defeated and ultimately death, Christ, that is to say the Word remaining in human nature, will present the kingdom to God the Father and the Son Himself submit herself to Him who has subjected everything to him, that "God may be all in all" (1 Cor., 15, 28). Meditation ofinfinita, summa, divina Maiestas of Christ can certainly contribute to deepening the sense of liturgy, and that is why we wanted to draw your attention on it.

[25] Our Lord Jesus Christ, Son of God, is God and man.

We would add two points to finish on "Liturgy and the past," the liturgy and the present time.

The liturgy and the past. In liturgical matters, as in many other areas, should be avoided in respect of the past two exaggerated attitudes: a blind attachment and a total disregard. We find in the liturgy of unchangeable elements, a sacred content that transcends time, but variable factors, transient, sometimes defective. The current attitude of the liturgical community with respect to the past, we usually seem quite right: we look, we study seriously, focus is what really deserves it, also without going overboard. Here and there, however, appear in ideas and trends, outliers, resistors, enthusiasm or conviction as concrete forms and you are familiar with a word we said above.

The liturgy and the present. The liturgy gives life to the Church, and even to any religious attitude of today, a fingerprint characteristic. We note a particularly active and conscious participation of the faithful in liturgical celebrations. On behalf of the Church, the liturgy is current with the interest of progress, but also the preservation and defense. She returns to the past without slavishly copying, and creates something new in the ceremonies themselves, in the use of the vernacular in popular songs and church construction. It is nevertheless worth recalling again that the Church has serious reasons to keep it firmly in the Latin rite unconditional obligation for the priest celebrant to use the Latin language, and even when the accompanying chant the holy Sacrifice, as it is done in the language of the Church. The faithful are concerned for their part to respond to actions taken by the Church, but they adopt it in profoundly different attitudes: some show of quickness, enthusiasm, sometimes even too strong a passion that motivates the actions of authority, others testify to the indifference and even opposition. Thus is manifested the diversity of temperaments, as also preferences for individual piety or for corporate worship.

The present liturgy is also concerned with many problems related, for example: reports of the liturgy with the religious ideas of the modern world, contemporary culture, social issues, psychology of depths.

This simple statement will suffice to show you the various aspects of the liturgy today, not only arouse our interest, but we keep high vigilance. We sincerely wish that the liturgical movement is progressing and we want to help him but he belongs We also prevent what would be a source of errors and dangers. What we are also a comfort and a joy to know that we can in this count on your help and your understanding.

Whether these considerations can, with the work that you have occupied the previous day, bring abundant fruits and contribute to achieving the goal toward which surely the sacred liturgy. As a pledge of divine blessings, that we crave for yourselves and for the souls entrusted to you, we give you our heartfelt Apostolic Blessing.

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