Tuesday, 20 April 2010

Pope Pius XII Encyclical "Humani Generis"

Pope Pius XII.

Encyclical "Humani generis"

of 12 August 1950 on some false opinions which threaten the foundations of Catholic doctrine to undermine.1

To have the patriarchs, primates, archbishops, bishops and other local ordinaries, the peace and communion with the Apostolic See.

Venerable brothers! Heilsgruß and Apostolic Blessing!


Disunity of the human race in the things of religion and morality and the deviation from the truth has always been good for all, especially the faithful and upright sons of the church, the reason and the cause of deepest sorrow. Today this is especially true because we all perceive attacks on the foundations of Christian culture itself. It surprised us, not that such disagreement and such errors are outside the Church of Christ ever found. For even if the human mind to come with his natural knowledge forces itself to the true and certain knowledge of a personal God who protects by His providence the world and governed, and the natural law that the Creator put in our souls, can, so there are but for him to make quite a few obstacles of its original capacity a really fruitful use.

For all things relating to God and concern between God and man existing relationship, rest in truths which the world of meaningful things dominate. These require the people to self-devotion and self-determined, if they win on the life and influence it. The human mind is hampered in the knowledge of such truths by the power of the senses and the imagination, as well as by the perverted passions that have "their origin in the" original sin. So it happens that people convince these things like it that was wrong or questionable, what they do not want to be true.

Therefore it must be said that the divine revelation is morally necessary, so that what in matters of religion and morals in the mind - even at the present state of the human race - is not inaccessible, easily by all, with firm certainty and without any admixture of error can be detected2. Yes, sometimes, the human mind has difficulty even in the formation have a certain appeal of credibility regarding the Catholic faith itself, even though so many and wonderful characters are established by God, because those already in the light of natural understanding of the divine origin of the Christian religion is certainly can be proved. The man is in fact capable - it was misled by prejudice, or by ill-will and desires incited - and not just the convincing evidence of the external signs to be denied, which stands in plain sight, but to resist the divine breath, which God in our souls can be incorporated. Who now the people who are outside of the hut of Christ, observed, can easily recognize the main roads, which have taken quite a few scholars.

Some advocate the so-called judgmental and foolish of them "evolutionary theory", which is on its own field of science has not proven safe for the explanation of the origin of all things. Boldly they pay homage to the "monistic" and "pantheistic" view that the whole world of a permanent "evolution is subject."

The favourer of "communism" but gladly use this view to their "dialectical materialism" to defend and disseminate effective, and they forcibly remove any thought of God from the souls. The assertions of this "evolution theory", which all reject what is absolute, firm and immutable, have lost the mistake of modern philosophy, which - with the "idealism", the "immanentism" and "pragmatism" emulating - is "existentialism" calls, the paths prepared. This does not care about the unchanging nature of things and turns his attention to the mere "existence" of individual things. Add to that a false "historicism," which pays attention only to events in human life, and destroyed the foundations of any absolute truth and any law, both in terms of philosophy, as well as in terms of Christian beliefs.

In such a comforting confusion of opinions to see a little us, such as those that were once educated in the principles of "rationalism" is not rare today to return to the fountain of God made available to the truth of desire, and in the Holy Scripture contains the Word of God as the basis of the saints proclaim recognize and theology. At the same time but it is unfortunate, as not a few of them ever more firmly attach the word of God, which reduce the more human reason, and the higher they rise in their enthusiasm the authority of the revealing God, the more violent they despise the teaching of the Church that has been instituted by Christ the Lord, to preserve the divine revelations and explained. It is now not only in open contradiction to Heiigen writing, but it also turns out to be false by experience. Often complain that that is what kept separated from the true church, even openly about their own divisions over doctrinal issues, so that they testify against their will, the need of the living magisterium.

But it is the duty of the Catholic theologians and philosophers who have the serious task of the divine and human truth to defend and to implant the souls of the people to know this more or less from the right path aberrant views and to respect them. Yes, these doctrines even they should see through me: partly, because even diseases can not be cured well if they are not properly recognized, partly because in the wrong views itself often a grain of hidden truth, finally, because the same spirit this challenge to study certain philosophical or theological truths of insight, and to consider more closely. If our philosophers and theologians from the thorough study of these doctrines would seek only those fruits would have the Church Magisterium no reason to object. But if we also know that Catholic teachers generally wary against these errors, but it is clear that today, as in the apostolic times, not such a lack of too much striving for innovation, or fear be kept in the things of the modern scientific progress for ignorant, and who seek to evade a question of leadership of the Holy Magisterium. So they are in danger of imperceptibly from the truth revealed by God to be removed and other drag down with him to the mistake.

There is also another danger, which is all the greater because it is more hidden under the guise of virtue. For there are many who, mourning by the discord of the human race and the confusion of minds, drifting from one imprudent zeal for souls and let burn in intense desire to break the barriers, which are separated by good and upright people apart. They give themselves such a "irenicism" indicates that they are looking at setting aside the divisive issues, people not only in atheism, to join forces to combat him, but also to the elimination of extremes in terms of beliefs. And as it once was, some who asked not whether the traditional "apology" to the church was more a hindrance than a help to win souls for Christ, it is also missing today is not in such who dare to go so far as that they seriously raise the question be whether or not the theology and its method, which are practiced in the schools of learning with the approval of ecclesiastical authority, not only improved, but reformed rather totally would have enabled the Kingdom of Christ throughout the earth, among people jegicher Cultural and religious views could be disseminated through any more effective.

If only they had the intention to adapt by introducing some new way the church science and its method of present conditions and requirements, there would be little reason for concern, but in the imprudent zeal of their "irenicism keep" some apparently even those things for obstacles to the restoration of fraternal unity, which is based on the laws and principles of Christ and the institute he founded himself, or what as solid protection means and resources for the integrity of the faith stand: When are these, then indeed everything is united, but only as a heap of ruins.

The new views of this kind, whether they arise now from the worldly desire for innovations, or whether they have a commendable reason: They are not always presented in the same ratios, with the same clarity and with the same expressions, not always with unanimous agreement of their Copyright. For what is taught today by some, with certain restrictions, and distinctions in more covert ways that bring tomorrow others that are bold, in open and in immoderate manner, and not without annoyance for many, especially the younger clergy, and not without damage to the church's authority. What tends to be the subject of publications in book form with more caution, which is already discussed freely in popular private writings, as well as in lectures and meetings. Such views find their distribution not only in the world and religious clergy and the seminaries and religious institutes, but also among the laity, and especially in those who are active in youth education.


As for the theology, so go some of it to weaken the concept of dogma, as far as possible. The dogma itself, they want rid of the long since taken over by the Church of expression and of the Catholic teachers in the usual philosophical terms, to return in the explanation of Catholic doctrine to the speech of the Holy Scriptures and the Holy Fathers. They hope that the dogma bereft of all Lehrbestandteilen, which are by their words outside of divine revelation, come to a fruitful comparison with the beliefs concerning opinions on the side of the unity of the church, divorced, and that this Step by step ways to get to align the Catholic dogma and the views of the separated each other.

Do they then brought the Catholic doctrine on this level, they claim, will pave the way in which - according to today's needs - the dogma in terms of today's philosophy can be expressed, no matter whether it is the "immanentism" , the "idealism", the "existentialism", or any other system is. It could and should be done so well, so confirm some with even greater boldness, because they claim that the mysteries of faith could never express in terms that fully correspond to the truth, but only in words and expressions - as say - "approximate true" and "convertible at any time" means.

By the same but the truth is somewhat implied ", but it is also necessarily distorted". Therefore they do not it absurd, but entirely necessary, that theology according to the different philosophies, which she uses in the course of time as their tools, new terms to replace the old set, so that in different forms - which themselves may even contradict, to some, but which (they say) mean the same thing - the same divine truths in human nature renders. To add more, the history of dogmas consists in the representation of the successive forms in which the revealed truth had dressed himself, according to the different teachings and opinions that have arisen in the course of time.

The above considerations clearly show that these tests would not only lead to the so-called "dogmatic" relativism ", but included it in reality already. This "relativism" is only too much is supported by the general disdain of traditional church doctrine, and the words and their meanings by which the same expression. It probably nobody denies that the words and their meaning for these terms as they are used in the schools of learning and the Magisterium of the Church itself, can be perfected and refined, is also is known that the Church in the use of these words is not always constant been. Sure it is, however, that the Church can not bind to any ephemeral philosophical system: The terms and expressions which have been shaped by the Catholic scholars in a joint agreement in the course of several centuries, to make a doctrine understandable, based not really on such a frail foundation.

They rely instead on the basic doctrines and concepts that were developed from a truthful knowledge of the created world. In preparing these findings illuminated the truth revealed by God, as if the sun, through the Church of the human mind. It is therefore not surprising that some of these notions of the general councils not only applied, but were solemnly confirmed, Therefore it would be sacrilege to depart from them. What with people of above average intelligence and holiness, under the vigilance of the Holy Magisterium, in grace, and not without the light and the guidance of the Holy Spirit, has been for centuries formed with difficulty and sophistication, is to the thinking covered truths of faith from day to days more accurately: So much and so neglecting Large, discard it, or to deprive its scope to include in its place on conjecture based concepts and some baseless and inaccurate expressions of a "new philosophy" which, like the flowers of the field exist today and tomorrow fade, which is not only extremely foolish, but this view also makes the dogma, in fact, as it were a reed, which is down by the wind-driven hither and. The contempt of the terms and concepts, to use what the scholastic theologians maintain, leads by itself to the weakening of the so-called "speculative theology": the same, so think that, devoid of true security and certainty, because it is based on theological arguments.

Painful it is that those eager innovators move from contempt for scholastic theology very easy to neglect the Magisterium of the Church itself or to despise what this theology, with his authority shall confirm very correct. This teaching is illustrated by them as a "barrier to progress and as an obstacle to science." Of some non-Catholics it is already regarded as an unjust reins are held by some theologians of higher education expect to renew their area of expertise. - This holy teaching must be the next and general standard of truth for each one theologian in matters of faith and morals: Christ the Lord, to him the whole deposit of faith treasure entrusted to him - the Holy Scripture and divine Tradition - to him , guard to defend and explain interpretive.

However, always meets the duty of the faithful in oblivion, as if a duty does not exist to flee also those errors which approach is more or less of heresy, and to observe, therefore, the constitutions and decrees of the Holy See has wrong views of this sort rejected and prohibited3. Intentionally have some accustomed to ignore that which contain what is in the circulars of the Roman popes over the nature of nature and the establishment of the Church to be dominated by only a more vague conception that it from the writings of the ancient fathers, especially the Greek, claim to have derived. The popes, so they tend to want to even say, make no ruling on the issues will be disputed over which among theologians, and therefore it was necessary to go back to the first sources and the more recent constitutions and decrees of the Church's Magisterium from the writings of ancients to explain out.

If this seems to be saying is smart, yet is adjustable and deceit in it. For it is true that the popes admit in general the theologian in the questions of freedom, which represent good spirit teachers different views, but history suggests also that much of what came first the free discussion of subject could tolerate later no discussion more.

One should not assume too, that what is stated in the encyclicals, as such, does not require approval because the popes exercised not to the supreme power of their teaching career. Because these are statements by virtue of the ordinary magisterium of which is indeed the word of Christ: He who hears you, hears me4. Yet this is often what the encyclicals teach and inculcate already elsewhere to Catholic doctrine. So if the popes in their dispositions to express an opinion on an intentionally controversial matter until then, it is clear to everyone that this thing was the intention and the will of the popes can not be regarded as a question of which of the free discussion between the theologians subject. It is also true that theologians must always rely on the sources of divine revelation: for it is indeed their job to provide evidence on which way is that which teaches the living Magisterium, the Holy Scripture and in the divine tradition, either expressly or einschlußweise finds5.

What's more, that this double source of the doctrine of divine revelation contains so many and such great treasures of truth that he can never really quite exhausted. Hence the sacred sciences grow through the study of sacred springs up more youthful, "while maintaining an approach which neglects a further investigation of the sacred treasure of faith, as we found out through experience, without fruit. For this reason, but also the so-called positive theology considered not properly be with the history of science on an equal footing, as God of the church together with the said sacred springs the living teacher gave to explain the truths and develop, in the religious treasure only dimly, and as it excludes einschlußweise.

That particular faith treasure left by the divine Redeemer neither the individual nor the theologians faithful to the authentic self-explanation and interpretation, but solely to the Magisterium of the Church. But if the church, as happened often over the centuries, this carries into office, whether by the Board or be it by the extraordinary performance of this very office, is so obviously firmly sure that the method is wrong, will explain to you from the dark backgrounds out this detail: On the contrary, all go the opposite way. As our unforgettable predecessor, Pius IX., Taught, therefore, that it is the primary task of theology, to show how a defined doctrine of the Church is contained in the sources, he added, not without serious reason, the words in exactly the same sense in which it has been defined by the Church.


We return back to the new views which we have already touched. Several things are spoken by some eingeflüstert and souls to the detriment of the divine authority of Holy Scripture. Some daring twist the meaning of the definition of the Vatican Council on God as the author of Scripture, and they often replace the already rejected that, pursuant to which the inerrancy of Sacred Scripture solely to those objects which refers about God, and on issues morality and religion act. In the wrong way, they speak of a "human sense of the sacred books," under which their performance is "divine sense" hidden. In the interpretation of Scripture they want to? "Analogy of faith? and take the tradition of the Church no consideration: I have to be that the doctrine of the Holy Fathers and of the church's teaching rather it were tested against the Scriptures as a benchmark, and as the same is explained in a purely human sense of the exegetes - rather than that this Scripture must be interpreted contrary to the meaning of the church, revealed by Christ the Lord as a guardian and interpreter of the whole treasure of the truth of God was made.

Would also have the literal meaning of Scripture and its interpretation, which was drawn up by so many great exegetes, and so under the authority of the church, give way to their false views of a new font declaration, which they call the "symbolic" or "mental". Using these would at last the books of the Holy Scriptures of the Old Testament, which come to a closed today as well in the church hidden, all are open. In the same way, they claim, will disappear with all the difficulties, which form only for such a barrier, holding the most literal sense of Scripture. Everyone can see how to remove all these views from the principles and norms of Scripture, have been established by our predecessors of blessed memory law: Leo XIII. in the encyclical Deus Providentissimus of Benedict XV. in the encyclical Spiritus Paraclete, and also of ourselves, in the encyclical Divino Afflante spiritu.

It is not surprising that "innovations have" brought forth of its kind in almost all areas of theology that part already perishable fruit. Thus doubted that human reason can prove without the aid of divine revelation and divine grace, with the creation of the conclusions reached, the existence of a personal God. It is denied that the world had a beginning, and asserts, that the creation of the world is inevitable necessary as it is clear from the necessary liberality of God's love. Negative is also the eternal and infallible foreknowledge of God the free actions of men. All these views are contrary to the declarations of Vatican II6.

Some also raise the question of whether angels are personal beings, and whether the substance differs substantially from the spirit. Other distort the supernatural order as a free gift of God, by claiming that God could not create beings endowed with reason, without the vision of the Blessed hinzuordnen and to invoke it.

That's not all: The concept of "original sin" is, generally disregarding the decisions of the Council of Trent, as well as the concept of "sin" as an "offense against God thrown" overboard, just as the concept of "satisfaction "has done in Christ for us. There are also those who claim that the doctrine of "transubstantiation," which is based on the old philosophical concept of substance, must be corrected, that the real presence of Christ in the Most Holy Eucharist is to be reduced to a certain "symbolism" . According to the sacred figures only "effective sign" to be the spiritual presence of Christ and of His intimate union with the faithful members of the mystical body of Christ.

Some do not consider themselves bound by the number of years ago our Encyclical7 doctrine outlined, based on the sources of revelation, which no knowledge that the Mystical Body of Christ and Roman Catholic church and the same. Other weaken the necessity of belonging to the true church in order to obtain eternal salvation, from an inconsistency right formula.

Finally, again others do to the character of the rational credibility of the Christian faith, violence and dishonor. It is clear that this and similar already with some creeps our sons who were deceived by an imprudent zeal for souls or a "science", that name incorrectly. Under sad feelings, we are forced to repeat both the well-known truths, and the errors lie clearly in mind and the dangers of error in grief and worry to make it publicly known.


Everyone knows how high the Church sets the value of human reason, which it belongs, to prove the existence of a personal God with certainty, as well as the basics of the Christian faith to demonstrate irrefutably by God-given sign to be correct. In the same way, the reason also make the law which the Creator has implanted in the souls of men, clearly the right way. Finally, it should also lead to a limited but extremely fruitful realization of the (divine) secrets.

But this task, the reason can only be entsprechendermaßen and certainly do justice when it is formed, due to manner: namely, when they trained in that sound philosophy which has long been as a legacy of earlier Christian centuries, has come down. The same also has a reputation because of a higher order, because the Magisterium of the Church itself, its principles and main explanatory statements, which were brought by men with great ingenuity by and by the knowledge and accurately determined, has called for balancing the divine revelation itself. It is this philosophy that is recognized in the church and guaranteed by it, defended the true and real scope of human knowledge and the unshakable fundamental laws of the theory of being, namely, "the of" sufficient reason "of the causality and of the" purposiveness " , and finally the "collection of safe and immutable truth."

In this philosophy, there are certainly many explanations which are neither directly nor indirectly related to matters of faith and morals and what the church anheimstellt the free discussion of experts. But for many others, especially to the principles and explanatory statements, which we mentioned above is not the same freedom. But even in such fundamental questions of philosophy, a more appropriate and richer garments are created, we can strengthen the same by more effective modes of expression, one can give up less suitable, scholastic aids; they can also gently enrich certain elements of the ongoing work of man. Nevertheless, but you should never bring down, or they sully by wrong principles, or as it were for a powerful, but still look outdated monument. For the truth and any philosophical explanation of them can not be subjected to from day to day changes.

This is especially true when it comes to the principles is that human reason by itself is evident, based both on the wisdom of centuries, the other consistent with the divine revelation and rest on them, as a pillar. What more can discover the human mind in an honest search for truths that can not stand in contrast with a previously discovered truth. For God, the supreme truth, has created the human mind and leads him - but not in such a way that the understanding of the acquired knowledge in the right way opposes new day, but after removal of any errors on the truth by the truth for further upside to build: in the same order and assembled, how the reality of the world itself, is removed from the truth indeed recognizes well-ordered. Therefore, let the Christian philosopher and theologian not take hasty and reckless all in what is always thought of "new ideas" Day by day, but he has to examine very carefully to them and create the right scale, in order not the truth already acquired, to lose with great danger and severe damage to the faith itself, either or distort.

After these considerations it is easy to see why the church demands that future priests be instructed in the philosophical subjects, by the method of teaching and the principles of the angelic teacher8. The Church knows well after an experience of many centuries that the method and manner of thinking of St. Thomas Aquinas, both in lessons for the beginners as well as in the study of hidden truths are uniquely well, that henceforth his teachings were in a kind of harmony with the divine revelation of matches, and that in the most effective way to secure the foundations of belief sets as well as useful and safe picks the fruits of a healthy progress. Therefore it is extremely complain that one's philosophy, which is accepted by the Church and recognized today exposes the contempt in some quarters, and one from her as "out of date in the form" and "rational" in the way of thinking, as they call it, renounces outrageous.

The opponents claim that this our philosophy mistakenly defend the opinion that there is an absolutely valid metaphysics, and while they say on the contrary, the truths, especially the transcendent, could find no better expressed than in a conflict of Grundlehrsätzen that complement each other, although they speak to each other to relate to. So they admit to it, that the reasoning advanced in our schools of learning philosophy, with its clear description of the questions and their solutions with their accurate determination of terms and their clear distinctions might well be useful for the study of scholastic theology, which of the mentality of the Middle Ages adapted in an outstanding manner was, but she could offer no way of philosophizing, which would correspond to our contemporary culture with their needs. They argue further that the "perennial philosophy" is nothing but a philosophy of immutable essences, while the current thinking would be interested in the "existence of individual things," and the "ever-flowing life." - But while they despise this philosophy, they praise highly different systems: be it ancient or new, be they those of Eastern or Western nations so much, it seems that they thus want sneaky inspire the souls of the feeling that any philosophy or opinion could be placed, accompanied - if that's needed - some improvements and additions, in settlement with the Catholic dogma.

But no Catholic can doubt that this is entirely wrong, especially since it is those fantasies is what they call "immanentism" or "idealism" or "historical" and "dialectical materialism" or "existentialism" the latter being either the "atheism" is committed or at least turns against the value of rational inference in the field of metaphysics.

Finally, they criticize the philosophy of our schools have learned this as a defect that it took account of the cognitive process only the mind, the activity of the will and neglect of the emotions. This is not true. For never a Christian philosophy of the value and impact has denied that the good order of the whole mental powers to the full knowledge and acquisition has the religious and moral truths. Rather, it has always taught that the disappearance of such an order may be the reason why the mind is so darkened much under the influence of the passions and the evil will be that he no longer looks right.

Moreover, the "Doctor communis holds" implies that the mind in some way the higher goods, be it natural or supernatural, the range can cover the moral order, so far as he in his soul a certain mood, "Community care"9 experiences with such equipment, is the same, by nature, or was it added by a gift of grace10. It is clear how much such, can detect if only a little dark for his research efforts of reason a help. This means the range of moods of the will granting the power of reason to help to achieve a safer and more solid knowledge of moral matters. Something completely different, it means but what call these "innovators" urgent: that the capabilities of the longing seeking and desiring endeavor a certain intuitive force it to grant, and that man, he by pushing the reason can not determine with certainty what is to be true, ought to incline to the will, by which he could meet with opposing opinions by a free decision itself a choice. Here, the knowledge and activities of the Wilier in a disorganized mess to be made.

It is not surprising that these new views to bring two philosophical subjects at risk, which by their nature are very closely connected with the doctrine: that the theodicy "and the" ethics ". The opponents are of the opinion that it was not the task of these two subjects, anything to prove about God Safe or other transcendent beings scientifically, but rather show how what faith teaches about a personal God and His commandments, completely with the needs of life related, and how it was therefore assumed by all to save them from despair and to attain eternal salvation. All this is in flagrant contradiction with the decisions of our predecessor Leo XIII. and Pius X. Likewise, it is also incompatible with the decrees of the Vatican Council. There would be no reason for such deviations from the truth need to mourn, if any, also in the field of philosophy, who set their mind with due reverence to the Magisterium of the Church would. Under divine institution whose task it is not only the treasure of revealed truth from God to preserve and explain, but to watch over the philosophical disciplines, so that the Catholic Glaubenlehren suffer from incorrect principles and opinions no damage.


It remains to us now, to comment on the issues which, if they refer also to the so-called positive sciences, but more or less connected with the truths of the Christian faith. Not a few are so urgently demand that the Catholic religion should take into account this "scientific" disciplines as much as possible. This is commendable, in fact, is where it is really proven facts, but it is incorporated with caution where it is more a question of hypotheses, even if they are based somehow on earthly science, by which the Holy Scripture or is touched in the tradition contained doctrine. If such presumptions of opinions emanating directly or indirectly against the doctrine revealed by God, then, such a claim in no way be allowed.

Therefore, it prohibits the Magisterium of the Church is not that the theory of evolution, so far there research will be made on the origin of the human body from an already existing living matter - while even the Catholic faith obliges us to hold out that the souls of directly God have created - in accordance with the present state of the secular sciences and sacred theology, the subject of investigations and meetings of learned experts in both fields was. And indeed should the reasons for both views, ie, the favorable and the unfavorable, with due seriousness, considered to be weighed and measured and assessed, under the assumption that all are prepared to follow the ruling of the church, which of the Christ Office has been entrusted to explain both the Scripture authentic, but to also protect the dogmas of faith11.

Some cross now in reckless audacity that freedom of discussion, by doing so, as it were is the origin of the human body from an already existing and living matter by up to now found evidence and by drawing conclusions from this evidence already proven with complete certainty, and allegedly lay out the sources of divine revelation no reason which would require in this area the greatest moderation and caution.

If however, in another opinion is based on conjecture, known as "polygenism," said the sons of the Church by no means enjoy such liberty. For the faithful can not join an opinion, say their supporters either that there was either given to Adam here on earth, real people, which is not of him as the father of all, descended on the way of natural procreation, or that "man" denotes a set of ancestors. For there is clearly no way that such a view could be brought in line with what say the sources of revealed truth and the documents of the Magisterium of the Church about the "original sin": that the same from the truly committed sin of an Adam clear, and that it is inherent in any way by the birth and all went over, and each12.


As in the biological and anthropological disciplines, as well as in the historic crossing some daring the limits set by the church and precautions. Particularly deplorable is too free a certain way in the interpretation of the historical books of the Old Testament. To defend their reasons to their favourer wrong to rely on a letter which was sent not long ago, from the Pontifical Biblical Commission to the Archbishop of Paris13.

The letter warned expressly that the first eleven chapters of Genesis - even if it really is not that of way in accordance with the history, as distinguished from the Greek and Latin writers, and was also used by the professional scholars of our time - yet in a very real sense, the exploring of the exegetes still further and to explain it is to the genre of historical representation are. The same chapter, so it is to report in a simple and vivid, adapted to the mentality of a little-educated people's speech one hand, the principal truths which are to obtain our salvation is of fundamental importance, the other they give as well as a popular report of the origin of human race and the chosen people.

Although the old inspired authors of Scripture have some taken from the popular stories - what common ground can be added - so you must never forget that they did under the inspiration of divine inspiration, through which it regarding the selection and decision those documents were protected from all wrong from the start. It can also be recorded in the Scriptures popular stories in no way made with mythologies or the like on the same level as the latter emerge more from a dissolute imagination as a quest for truth and simplicity, which so in the books of the Old Testament is very striking. Therefore we must be inspired by our writers said that they surpass all ancient profane obvious.

We now know of course that most Catholic teachers who leave the fruits of their studies, universities, seminaries and colleges provide the religious, are far removed from those errors, which today - be it either from the desire for novelty, it made some excessive zeal of the apostolate out - open or hidden are brought to the people. But we also know that such new ideas are able to attract the unwary. And that is why we want to better bring them to face at the beginning, as only then proffering the remedy when the disease was already firmly ensconced. Therefore, to our sacred official duty is not defective comply with our wish to ensure, after careful consideration and deliberation of the matter before the Lord, the bishops and superiors of religious orders under the heaviest commitment to their conscience, with the greatest zeal for it that in the academic schools, at meetings and in writings of any kind These kind of views put forward, nor transferred also to the clergy or the faithful in any manner.

All who teach in religious institutions, should know that they entrusted the task of teaching them not to exercise a clear conscience when they adopted the standards of doctrine of us do not accept and follow the sacred teaching of the trainees carefully. This reverence due, and this obedience, they should have constantly in their strenuous activities to the Magisterium of the Church, they should also inspire the mind and the soul and the trainees.


With all the strength and effort, they may prosper in their subjects, but they should be careful also about to exceed the determined by us to protect the truth of faith and Catholic doctrine limits. On the new issues, as does today's culture and the progress of the age at the center, they should closely focus their attention: but with due prudence and caution. Finally, they should not, a false "irenicism" my homage, who separated and erring could happily be attributed to the bosom of the church, if not all honestly the whole unabridged in the church flourishing truth, without any distortion and any qualification, and maintains entrusted.

Having regard to this hope, which grows by your pastoral care issue, we as a sign of heavenly gifts and of Our paternal benevolence as the proof to you all individually, Venerable Brothers, as well as your clergy and people very affectionate Apostolic Blessing.

Given in Rome at St. Peter am on 12 August of 1950, in the twelfth year of Our Pontificate.

Pius PP. XII.

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1 Translation for the version of the Vienna Diocesan Journal.
2 Vatican Council I, Const. de fide cath., cap. 2, de relevation.
3 CJC can 1917th 1324th
4 Lc 10.16.
5 Pius IX., Inter gravissimas, from 28/10/1870.
6 Vatican Council I, Const. de fide cath., cap. 1, De Deo rerum omnium Creatore.
7 Mystici Corporis of 29 June 1943.
8 CJC can 1917th 1366.2.
9 "Connaturalitas.
10 Thomas Aquinas, S.th.II-II, Q.1, a.4 ad in 3, and q.45, a.2 8 corp.
11 Address by Pius XII. to the members of the Academy of Sciences of November 30, 1941, AAS XXXIII, p.506.
12 Rom 5,12-19; can Council of Trent, Session V,. 1-4.
13 Letter of 16 January 1948.

"Mystici corporis"
Encyclical of Pope Pius XII. about the mystical body of Christ 29/6/1943

To the venerable brethren the patriarchs, primates, archbishops, bishops, and the other pastors who live in peace and communion with the Apostolic See:

Venerable Brothers, Greetings and Apostolic Blessing!

About the Mystical Body of Christ, the Church (Col. 1, 24), first taught us the word of the Savior himself. By this doctrine, the great, never sufficiently extolled grace of our intimate connection with such a sublime head in the right light is made. So it is certainly a matter determined by its importance and dignity of all people who let God's spirit lead inviting to view, it enlightens and inspires thereby greatly saving to those works that correspond to such instructions. We therefore consider it our job, to talk about this in this newsletter with you by which we prove in particular the state and as far as the Church militant. This provides us not only the extraordinary grandeur of this truth, but also our present time situation.

We intend to speak of wealth, which rests in the bosom of the Church which Christ has purchased with His blood (Acts 20, 28 3) and whose members boast of their dornenumkrönten head. This is a shining testimony that everything will be born Beautiful, High only from the suffering, and we look forward to even do if we are allowed to participate in Christ's sufferings so that we can also look forward to the revelation of His glory us rejoice and (1 . Pet. 4, 13).

First, it must be remembered: as the savior of mankind from those who contribute to their salvation, he had taken upon himself, was inundated with persecution, defamation and distress, it must founded by him in this community, its divine founder to be similar. Although we do not deny, nay rather confess with gratitude to God that in our time, not a few are confused, which, although separated from the herd look of Jesus Christ, but to the Church as the sole port of Salvation. But we also know that the Church of God, despised and reviled arrogant and hostile, not only by those who reject the light of Christian wisdom, and talk of a miserable return to the teachings, customs and institutions of a pagan past the word. They met frequently disregard, indifference and even a certain weariness and disgust with many Christians who are caught up by the dazzling light of the mistake or have ensnared by the allurements and temptations of the world. We therefore have every reason to accede, Venerable Brethren, of conscience and duty to the wishes of many, the beauty, grandeur and glory of our mother, the church, next to God we owe all that to put all in mind and to praise them. It is hoped that these bring our instructions and warnings in the current circumstances of the time when the Christian faithful of fruits. Because we know that if afflicts the unnamed pain and suffering of these stormy times, the almost innumerable people bitterly, as will be accepted from God's hand in silent resignation, then it draws like a force of nature, the heart of the suffering of earthly transience away the heavenly and eternal permanent, and awakens in them a secret thirst and an urgent desire for spiritual things. Under the action of the divine spirit, they feel encouraged and urged to seek the kingdom of God zealously. The more that is the people of this world and the vanities of the disordered love of this world are separated, the more they are able to detect the light unearthly secrets. Now we see but today perhaps more clearly than ever the impermanence and transience of all earthly things, as falling empires and states, as tremendous values and riches of all kinds sunk to the vast oceans, as towns, castles and fertile fields to smash grisly ruins and stained by fratricide be.

We also hope it will for those who are separated from the bosom of the Catholic Church, its not inconvenient or useless, what we now want to explain about the mystical body of Jesus Christ. And not just because their good will seems to grow daily against our church, but also for the following reason: if they perceive as at present against nation and kingdom against kingdom, and arises as discord and jealousy, as the seed of enmity into grow unbounded, and if they then directed their gaze at the church and see their God-given unity - which all people are of any race in fraternal union with Christ - then they will find themselves truly obliged to admire such a community of love and under the encourage and help feel the Grace are attracted to participate in this unity and love.

We still see a reason to love us most, why is this truth to us in the sense and satisfies us with great joy. Last year, the twenty-fifth day since our consecration, we experienced our great consolation to something that could light up the image of the mystical body of Jesus Christ in all parts of the world luminous. For while the deadly, long war, the brotherhood of nations had broken miserably, we saw our sons in Christ everywhere in the unanimous sentiment and love her heart for the common father raise, the one with the grievances and concerns of all loaded in such stormy times, the control of Catholic Church has kept. Herein behold we embrace not only a testament to the wonderful unity of the Christian community but also for the following fact: just as we all peoples of any nation with paternal love, the Catholics look from everywhere, although their peoples against each other in battle, the representative of Jesus Christ like father, of all loves, which is run by completely impartial and incorruptible judge the turbulent waves of human disturbances, which recommends the truth, justice and love, and takes every effort.

A lesser consolation, it was not for us to know, that was collected from voluntary gifts of love to contribute, so could rise in Romans a holy shrine in honor of Our predecessor and namesake Eugene I. As this church, by the will and the Donations of all Christian believers erected to perpetuate the memory of this anniversary year, so we want our gratitude through this circular permanent expression to confer, it deals by those living building blocks mitauferbaut on the living cornerstone who is Christ, a holy temple , far more sublime than any man-made temple, a dwelling place of God in the Spirit (Eph. 2 21 22; 1 Pet. 2, 5.)

But the main reason why we now want to deal with this sublime doctrine at some length, is our pastoral concern. Well much has been published about this, and it is not unknown to us, that today not a few deals with zeal and devotion with this idea, which the Christian piety and attracts so much support. This is as it seems, primarily due to the fact that a renewed understanding of the sacred liturgy, which is enforcing frequent reception of the Eucharistic meal, and finally today so pleasant, intimate worship of the Sacred Heart of Jesus, many to a deeper examination of the unsearchable riches of Christ conducted, which are deposited in the church. In addition, that the recent publications on the Catholic Action, which yes, the ties between the Christians and with the church hierarchy, especially with the Bishop of Romans, always close tie, undoubtedly contributed not a little to the question due to light. Can we look forward, however, about these facts and with good reason, so are still not only the true of the church separated grave errors spread over this doctrine, but to show it undeniably also in the faithful less correct or completely missed views by the Pull off the right path of truth can.

While that is still on the one side always. false rationalism everything that exceed human intelligence and leaves behind regarded as meaningless, while seeing one that related error, a flat naturalism, in the Church of Christ, nothing else looks more than will a purely legal and social bond, creeps on the other page of a false mysticism, which seeks the immovable boundaries between creature and Creator removed and misinterpreted the Scriptures.

As a result of these opposing, contradictory, and misconceptions keep many from all over unfounded fear such a deeper lesson to be dangerous and even frighten her, as before a beautiful but forbidden paradise apple. This is unjustified, for secrets revealed by God not to man can be fatal, nor may they, like the hidden treasure in the field to remain sterile. They are given to us rather to God, so that they contribute through respectful consideration to the spiritual progress. So yes, the Vatican Council teaches: "The reason enlightened by faith can by diligent, respectful and modest recital with God's grace to gain some insight into the mysteries, and a very fertile, because of similarities in the field of natural knowledge as well as from the context of the secrets to each other and with the last end of man. " Of course, the reason, the same council, "stresses never able to penetrate the same as the truths that make the subject of her own knowledge" (Sessio III: Const. De fide cath., C. 4.)

Hence, the uplifting beauty of the church in a new glory to shine forth the incomparable, supernatural nobility of the faithful who are associated in the body of Christ with her head, luminous light step, so that finally the multiple errors on this subject any access was closed, we considered it to provide careful consideration before God for our pastors duty of all Christendom by this circular, the doctrine of the mystical body of Jesus Christ, and for the connection of the faithful in this body with the divine Redeemer and at the same time from this appealing theory some points should be stressed that a deeper understanding may result in the mystery, and thus richer fruits of perfection and holiness.

become the consideration of this doctrine provides first is the Apostle: "As the sin oversized, was the grace still overwhelming (Rom. 5, 20). The progenitor of the whole human race has been, as we know, by God in such a lofty status added that he was in his descendants should also negotiate with the earthly and the supernatural life of heavenly grace. But after the sad fall of Adam lost the entire human family, infected by the original sin, the participation in the divine nature (2 Pet. 1 4), so we were all children of wrath (Eph. 2, 3.) But the compassionate God "so loved the world that He gave His only begotten Son" (Jn 3, 16), and the word of the Eternal Father has the same divine love of the posterity of Adam assumed a human nature, of course, a sinless and free from any blemish, so niederströme of the new, heavenly Adam the grace of the Holy Spirit to all children of the ancestor were. This by the sin of the first man of divine sonship deprived gone. But now they should by the incarnate Word, the flesh to become brothers of the only begotten Son of God to gain the power to become children of God (John 1, 12) has. This for Christ through his death on the cross not only the violated justice of the Eternal Father's enough done, but He deserves us as His brothers also an ineffable fullness of grace. This would, he may himself immediately allocate the entire human race, He wanted to do it but by the visible church, to which the people should unite, so that as in the distribution of divine redemption fruits of all He could to some extent provide helper services. How did that is using the word of God, our nature, to redeem by his pain and anguish of the people, so used It similarly over the centuries the church to the work begun to give time (Conc. Vatican, Const. de Eccl.).

In a statement this being the true church of Christ, which is the holy, Catholic, Apostolic, Roman Church (ibidem, Const. De fid. Cath., Cap 1.), Nothing more noble and more excellent, nothing more divine than that found expression which she called "the mystical body of Jesus Christ." This name is clear and blossoms were from what is in the Scriptures and the writings of the holy fathers often argued about it.

That the church is one body, say the sacred books often. "Christ is the head of the body of the Church" (Col. 1, 18). If the church is one body, but it must be something The only indivisible and in the words of St. Paul: "Many, indeed, we form only one body in Christ" (Rom. 12, 5.) But it is not merely something The only indivisible and they must be, but also something tangible and visible, as our predecessor Blessed ANGED. Leo XIII. in his newsletter Satis Cognitum finds: "It is because she is one body, the church is perceived through the eyes" (ASS, XXVIII, p. 710th). As a result deviates from the divine truth, who represents the church as if they grasped neither could still be seen, as if she just said, just a bit "Pneumatic" would be, so many Christian communities, although separated from one another in faith, but were united by an invisible bond between them.

But a body also requires a multiplicity of terms that need to be connected to each other that they provide mutual assistance. And just as in our mortal bodies, if one member suffers, all suffer, and the other healthy members of the sick come to help, also live in the Church the individual members not only for themselves but also support the other and make each other all support services for mutual comfort, particularly as to the further development of the whole body.

Moreover, as in nature, a body is not out of any composition of terms is created, but must be equipped with organs, that is, with limbs that have different tasks and are assembled in an appropriate order, the Church must therefore mainly a body called because it grows out of an organic compound of parts and is equipped with various matching links. Otherwise, the apostle describes the church when he says: "Just ... we have many members in one body, but do not all members of the same service, we are many are one body in Christ, but between the individual members' (Rom. 12, 4.)

You may not believe this organic build up the Body of the Church refers and is limited only to the staging of the church offices, yet also, as an opposite view claims existed, it only made charismatics, although those with wonderful gifts man furnished never in the Church will be missing. Certainly it should be note that, with the sacred power and choice are the first members of this body in the undertaking entrusted, as they continue in force by the mission of the divine Redeemer, even the offices of Christ the teacher, king and priest for ever. But quite rightly, the church fathers, when they emphasize the services levels, occupations, positions, orders and offices of this body, not only those received before his eyes, the sacred rites, but also all those who after taking over the evangelical counsels seek active life among men or a lead in the silence of hidden, or both to achieve according to their particular constitution, also those who, though living in the world press, but is zealous in works of mercy to other mental or physical to provide assistance, and finally even those who are wedded to chaste marriage. Yes, it is important to note that especially in the current circumstances of the time, the fathers and mothers, the godfather, and especially those that offer a layman to the spread of the kingdom of Christ, the Church hierarchy helping hand, an honorable, if often unsightly place take in the Christian community, so that they too can rise up with God's grace and help to the highest sanctity, which is absent in accordance with the promises of Jesus Christ never in church.

But how the human body is obviously equipped with their own tools with which he can take care of the life, health and growth of itself and the individual members, the Saviour has taken care of the people in his infinite goodness wonderful for his mystical body, He enriched by him with sacraments, so as the limbs as if to receive grace in an unbroken sequence from the cradle to the last breath, and to have both the social needs of the whole body freely. Through the bath of baptism, the mortal in this life, born again, not only from the death of sin and made to members of the Church, but also with a spiritual characteristic drawn, and thereby enable and repaired, to receive the other Sacraments. Through the anointing of Confirmation the faithful new force is given that they protect the mother church and the faith which they received from her, and bravely defend. Through the sacrament of penance, the members of the Church who fell into sin, is an effective remedy is provided, which provided not only for their own salvation, but also change from the limbs of the mystical body kept the risk of infection and also an encouragement to them and an example is given in virtue. But still not enough: the Holy Eucharist the faithful are nourished by a single meal, and strengthened and united among themselves and with the divine head of the whole body by an ineffable, divine band. And at last is the loving mother church to the terminally ill to him by the holy sacrament of the anointing, God willing, to donate the recovery of this mortal body, if not, then at least to many of the wounded soul of a heavenly remedy, and so the new heaven citizens and himself to give new lawyers, enjoy the goodness of God forever.

For the social needs of the Church of Christ has subsequently taken by two sacraments appointed by him or in a special way concern. Through marriage, in which the spouses are mutually dispenser of grace, the outer and orderly growth of the Christian community and, more importantly, the religious right childcare is provided, without which the mystical body was most seriously threatened. By the holy priesthood but that God will be dedicated entirely to the service, sacrifice which the eucharistic host, the host of believers with the bread of angels and the supply of teaching nourish, guide them with the divine commandments and councils and with the other heavenly gifts to strengthen.

It is this consideration: how God should be the beginning of time man with a very rich physical features thought by virtue of which he subjected the creation to be fulfilled and multiplying the earth, He was in the beginning of the Christian era, the church with the necessary resources equipped to meet after overcoming seemingly innumerable risks not only the whole world, but also the heavens.

The members of the Church but in truth are reckoned among only those that received the bath of rebirth, to confess the true faith and have not separated themselves for their misfortune on the context of the body, even for serious violations by the lawful ecclesiastical authority which had been excluded are. "Because - so says the apostle - a spirit we were all baptized into one body, whether Jews or Gentiles, whether bond or free" (1 Cor. 12, 13).

As it is, in the true community of Christian believers is only one body, only one spirit, one Lord and one baptism, so there can be only one faith in her (Eph. 4, 5), and, therefore, is who the church listen to refuse to look after the commandment of the Lord as a public heath and sinners (Mt 18, 17). For this reason, the, which are separated in faith or in the direction of each other, do not live in this one body and one of his divine spirit.

But it would be wrong to believe that the body of the church because it bears the name of Christ, even here below, the time of his earthly pilgrimage from saintly only members or only from the multitude of those there who are predestined by God to eternal salvation . In His infinite mercy, namely, our Saviour is failing in his mystical body which also not the place to which he had once failed not at the feast (Mt 9, 11, Mk 2, 16, Luke 15, 2.) Because not every debt, whether it be a serious offense, is such that it is, as a consequence of the schism of heresy and apostasy, according to its nature, the human from the body of the Church separates. Also not all are deprived of supernatural life, although they have lost by their sin and sanctifying grace of the love and therefore become unable to be supernatural merit, but keep the faith and Christian hope and enlightened by heavenly light, through the inner locutions and will drive the Holy Spirit brought to salutary fear and inspired to prayer and repentance over their case.

Thus may each be afraid of sin, because through them the mystical elements of the Redeemer will be tainted, but who had the misfortune to sin, without having made himself unworthy of obduracy of the community of Christian believers, which should be met with great kindness and in him in real love nothing more than to see a sick member of Jesus Christ. Indeed, it is better, as the bishop of Hippo remarked, "cured in the context of life with the church than to be cut from her body as incurable member" (August., Epist, CLVII, 3, 22: Migne, PL, XXXIII, 686 .). "For what is still related to the body, at the healing you need not despair, but which is cut off, can not be cared for and healed" (August., Senn., CXXXVII, l: Migne, PL, XXXVIII, 754th ).

From the previous statements we can see, Venerable Brethren, that the church is designed such that they can compare one body, and we must explain clearly and exactly why they should not be called an arbitrary body, but the body of Jesus Christ. However, this is shown by the fact that our Lord Creator, main, Sustainer and Redeemer of this mystical body.

While we want to explain shortly, has formed the way in which the body of Christ to his community to provide us the following statement at the beginning of Leo XIII., Is Our Blessed Ang predecessor, "The church, which has previously received from the page the second, on the cross, as it had emerged sleeping Adam, appeared for the first time in a recognizable way to light the world on the most holy feast of Pentecost "(Leo XIII. Divinum illud: ASS, XXIX, p. 649th). The divine Redeemer began namely the construction of the mystical temple of his church at that time, preaching as he announced his bid. He finished it then, when He hung on the cross glorified and revealed to the public and handed him finally, when He sent his disciples in a visible way the Holy Spirit as a comforter.

While he held the office of the preacher that is, He chose the apostles and sent them, as He himself was sent by the Father (John 17.18.), As a teacher, as driver and as a donor of holiness amidst the faithful. He fixed her head and his deputy on earth (Mt 16, 18-19.), Revealed to them all that He had heard from the Father (Jn 15, 15, 17, 8 & 14 ordered), in the baptism ( John 3.5.) through which the faithful should be incorporated into the body of the church. Finally, having arrived on the evening of his life, he used the Holy Eucharist as sacrifice and wonderful wonderful sacrament.

That Christ has finished his work on the cross, insurance in a row the testimonies of the holy fathers, indicating that the "Church was born on a cross from the side of the Redeemer as the new Eve and the mother of all living (Gen. 3.20 ).. Where the great Ambrose speaks of the pierced side of Christ, he says, "Now it is being built, now designed, now ... formed, and now created. ... Now the spiritual building rises to the holy priesthood "(Ambros., In Luke 2, 87: Migne, PL XV, 1585).. Anyone who enters into this venerable doctrine more religious sense, is easy to see the grounds on which it is based .

For now that is to the repealed by the death of the Old Testament came the New Savior. At that time, the law of Christ was with His secrets, statutes, institutions and customs seals holy for the whole world in the blood of Christ. For while the divine Redeemer even within the narrow limits of his country preaching - he was sent only to the lost sheep of Israel (Mt 15, 24) - were law and gospel side by side (S. Thom. I-II , p. 103, a. 3, ad 2). But on the cross Jesus raised by his death, the law with its rules on (Eph. 2.15.), Fixed the bond of the Old Testament to the cross (Colossians 2.14.) And founded in his blood, that He for the entire human race shed, the new covenant (Mt 26, 28 et 1 Cor. 11.25.). "Such obvious," says St. Leo the Great, where he spoke from the cross of the Lord, "was the transition from law to gospel, from the synagogue to the church, brought about by the diversity of the victims the only victims, that when our Lord gave up his spirit, of that mysterious curtain that closed the hidden, innermost sanctuary of the temple, suddenly, violently, tore up and down "(Leo M., Sem, LXVIII 3: Migne, P. 'L. LIV, 374 .).

Died on the cross so the old law, which was soon buried and to be lethal (Jerome et August., Epist. CXLI, 14 et CXVI, 16: Migne, PL XXII, 924 et 943; S. Thom. I-II, had q. 103, a. 3, ad 2, a. 4 ad l; council. Flor., per Jacob.: Mansi. XXXI, 1738.) in order to make room for the new covenant, chosen for its suitable servants of Christ, the apostles (2 Cor. 3, 6). In the power of the cross shall exercise our Savior, even though already in the womb of the Virgin appointed head of the whole human family, the office of the head in his church in full from. "For the victory of the Cross, he earned", in the opinion of the angelic, teacher education, "the power and dominion over the nations" (p. Thom., III, q. 42, a. 1.) With this victory, he increased for us in the immeasurable grace of those treasure that he hands out gloriously in heaven reigning his mortal limbs ceaselessly. By his shed blood on the cross, He removed the barrier of God's wrath, so that from the sources of the Saviour all the gifts of heaven, especially since the holy sacraments of the New and Eternal Covenant, could for the salvation of men, especially of the faithful that flow. On cross tree he bought eventually his church, that is, all members of his mystical body, which could be incorporated only by the washing of baptism this mystical body through the healing power of the cross on which they were already in the fullest measure of Christ has become our own.

Now, if our Redeemer has become through his death in the full sense of the word head of the church, then the church was also communicated through his blood, the fullness of the Holy Spirit, through which it is illuminated since the survey and glorification of the Son of man on the cross in a divine way. Until then, as Augustine (De peccata. Noticed orig., XXV. 29: Migne, PL XLIV, 400), the Gnadentau of the Comforter was only on Gedeon's fleece, that is, to the people of Israel come down. But now, when the temple curtain tore, he overflowed in abundance, while the fleece remained dry and abandoned, the entire earth, that is the Catholic Church, which should be limited by no bounds, neither the tribe nor the state affiliation. So how in the first moment of the Incarnation of the Son of the Eternal Father the wesensvereinigte with Him nature of man with the full measure of the Holy Spirit endowed so that it would be a suitable tool of the deity at the bloody work of salvation, He would by in the hour of his precious death, his church richer If they gave the comforter enriches see, that they would in distributing the fruits of an able divine salvation, never-failing instrument of the Incarnate Word. to teach the legal mission of the Church and that is its power to manage and administer the sacraments, therefore, possess the heavenly power and violence, build up body of Christ, because Christ Jesus on the cross, opened his church to the source of divine gifts. It was repaired, the people always tell an infallible teaching, they lead to the salutary and enlightened by God to shepherd with heavenly grace overwhelm.

If we consider all these mysteries of the Cross carefully to us the words of the Apostle to the Ephesians are not dark, Christ had united by the blood of the Jews and the Gentiles, "as he tore down in his flesh the dividing wall" that separated the two peoples ; He had also abolished the old law, "to create out of the two in his person a new man", ie the church, "and both in one body to reconcile with God through his cross" (Eph. 2, l4- 16.) So He had, therefore, the church founded by his blood. On the day of Pentecost, but he strengthened them with their own power from the sky. For when He had used earlier solemnly as his deputy certain apostles in his sublime office, he had gone to heaven and was now seated at the right hand of the father, his bride by the visible descent of the Holy Spirit, under the roar of a mighty storm and in tongues of fire (Acts 2:1-4.) announcement and reveal. - Christ the Lord himself was at the beginning of his teaching from his eternal Father through the Holy Spirit, who descended in bodily form like a dove and remained on him (Luke 3:22; Mk 1, was 10th) revealed. So now he also sent, as the apostle should take up their sacred ministry, his spirit from heaven, touched by the fiery tongues, and should refer to the supernatural mission and the supernatural ministry of the Church as with a divine finger.

The fact that the mystical body, which is the church, bears the name of Christ, is second from the fact that Christ must be actually viewed by all as head of the church. "He is, as Paul says," the head of the body, the Church "(Col. 1, 18). He is the head, from whom the whole body is held together in proper order, grows and increases to its structure (Eph.4, 16, Col. 2, 19).

It is well known to you. Venerable brothers, such as luminous and clearly the master of scholastic theology, especially the angelic, general teachers, have acted on this truth. You know also ensure that the evidence put forward by St. Thomas correspond to the views of the holy fathers of the Faithful, which reflected the way, nothing else and explained as the sayings of the Holy Scriptures.

Nevertheless, we would like here to discuss the overall benefit this point more precisely. First, it is clear that God and the Blessed Virgin's son to be named because of its unique position of head of the church. If the head but the highest point in a body. But who is placed higher than Christ our God, who, word of the Eternal Father, as the "firstborn over all creation" (Col. 1, 15 4) must be considered? Who is on loftier peaks as Christ is the man who, born of the immaculate Virgin, is true and real son of God and his victory over death through the wonderful, glorious resurrection of the "first-born among the dead" was? (Col. 1, 18; Rev. 1, 5 5) Who has at last to claim higher rank than the one who, "... the sole mediator between God and man" (1 Tim. 2, 5), in a very miraculous way the Earth connects with the sky, the elevation at the back, as from a throne of mercy itself moved everything (John 12, 32), is chosen as the Son of man, from tens of thousands more loved by God than all people, all the angels and all creation? (Cyr. Alex., Comm. In Ioh. 1, 4: Migne, PG LXXIII, 69; S. Thom., I, q. 20, a. 4, ad I.) But because Christ occupies such a lofty place He directs and governs only fair to the church. Therefore He is also to compare this with the main reason. The head is yes, to use a word of St. Ambrose, the "royal castle" of the body (Hexaem. 6, 55: Migne, PL XIV, 265). From him, as the appointed member of the more exquisite skills are naturally led all other through which it is set to reflect concern for them (August., De agon. Christ., XX, 22: Migne, PL XL. 301 ). Shall carry out the Savior, the control over the entire Christian community and directs it. And as to lead a community of people means nothing more than lead them through purposeful planning and appropriate resources on the right path to predetermined targets (S. Thom., L, q. 22, a. 1-4.), Then easy to see that our savior, role model and example of the Good Shepherd (John 10, 1-18, 1 Pet. 5, 1-5.), all this has on very wonderful way.

He himself taught us, namely, as he stayed on earth, by regulations, councils and reminders with words, which never pass away and his spirit and life for the people of all times (John 6, 63). And besides, he gave his apostles and their successors a triple violence: to teach, guide and lead people to holiness. These special rules, rights and obligations defined violence as a principle, he turned to the whole Church.

But our divine Redeemer draws and directs itself directly founded by him company. He himself ruled namely in the spirit and heart of men, bent and spurs to his good pleasure even the stubborn will, "The heart of the king is in the hands of the Lord. He directs it wherever He wishes" (Proverbs 21, 1.) Through this inner line, he is not only as a "shepherd and bishop of our souls" (1 Pet. 2, 25) for the individual but also takes care of the whole Church. Soon, enlightened, and to bolster their own leaders, so that each of them faithfully and fruitfully exercise his office. Soon - and this especially difficult time in certain circumstances - it brings in the bosom of mother church men and women to shine forth through the glory of their holiness to the other believers in Christ to serve as the growth of his mysterious body. With special love, but Christ looks down from heaven on his spotless bride, who is suffering here on earth in exile. He looks in danger, he rescues them from the storm surge either personally or through his angels (Acts 8, 26, 9, 1-19, 10,1-7, 12, 3-10.), Or through them, we Call to help the Christians, and other heavenly helpers. Have then placed the waves and calms then he comforted her with that peace that "surpasses all the performance" (Phil. 4, 7.)

One must not believe, He directs them only to invisible (Leo XIII, Satis Cognitum: AS S "XXVIII, 725th) and extraordinary way. Our Divine Saviour also exerts a visible, neat line on his mystical body by his representative on earth. You know, Venerable Brethren, that Christ, our Lord, during his earthly pilgrimage, "the little flock" (Lk 12, 32) has ruled in person and on sensible ways. As he left but the world then and wanted to return Father, He has delegated the visible management of the whole set up by him company to the apostles. In his wisdom he could so the agencies established by Him social body of the Church not be without a visible head. One can not know this truth denied to shall argue, by the set in the church law primacy of the mystical body is provided with a double head. For Peter is, by virtue of the primacy only the Vicar of Christ, and therefore there is only a single head of this body, namely Christ. He does not indeed on the churches in a mysterious way to govern in person, in a visible way, but He guides you through the one who takes his place on earth. After his glorious ascension, the church was not only to him myself, but also to Peter as the visible foundation built. That Christ and his deputy on earth make up only a single head has Boniface VIII, our predecessor unforgettable memory, by the apostolic letter Unam Sanctam solemnly declared (Korp. Iur. Can. comm, ext., I, 8, 1), and his successor this lesson to repeat all the time.

In a dangerous error are therefore those that think they can worship Christ as head of the church without the true faith with his representatives on earth. For who can ignore the visible head, ripping the visible bond of unity, distorted the mystical body of the Redeemer to those beyond recognition, that it can be seen by those not yet found, the search for the secure port of eternal salvation.

What we here of the universal church said it must be said also of the particular Christian communities, both of the Oriental as of the Latin from which the one Catholic Church and is composed. Each is headed by Jesus Christ through the Word and the governance of their own bishop. Therefore, the church pastors not only be regarded as more excellent members of the general church, because, by a very strange band with the divine head of the whole body connected with law and therefore "the most important parts of the limbs of the Lord" (Greg. Magn, morals ., XIV, 35, 43: Migne, PL LXXV be called the 1062nd), but each one grazes his diocese and, in the name of Christ as the true shepherd his own flock entrusted to him (Conc. Vatican, Const. de ECCI. , cap. 3.) In this activity, they are certainly not entirely in its own right, but of the Roman Pontiff rightful authority subordinate to, though they possess an ordinary power of jurisdiction that will take them directly from the pope also issued. Therefore, they need to succeed the Apostles, according to divine institution (Cod Iur. Can Can.. 329, are 1) revered by the people. And over by the rulers of this world, even the highest, is true of the bishops, as they are provided with the anointing of the Holy Spirit, the words of scripture: "Do not inadvertently assault on my anointed!" (1Chro 16:22; Ps 104,15.6).

We are therefore seized with deep sadness when We are told that not a few suffer from our brothers in the episcopate persecution and maltreatment, because they are a living example to their flock (1 Pet. 5, 3 grown) and the sacred, they confided, "of faith" (1 Tim. 6, guard 20) with becoming fortitude and loyalty, because they insist on the observance of the holiest laws that are written by God in the heart, because they are the flock entrusted to them by the example of highest shepherds protect against predatory wolves. And this is not only caused them personally, but - what they feel even more cruel and harder - even the faithful entrusted to their custody, their assistants in the apostolic work, and even the consecrated virgins. We consider such an injustice done to us personally own and repeat the sublime utterance of Gregory the Great, Our predecessor unforgettable memory: "Our honor, the honor of the general church. Our honor is the solid force our brothers, and only then we are truly honored to if each its due honor is not denied "(Ep. ad Eulogius., 30: Migne, PL LXXVII, 933rd).

But we must not believe that Christ our head, because he holds such a commanding position, required not by the aid of his mystical body. Even this is what Paul says by the human body: "The key to the feet can not. .. Talk: I need your not" (1 Cor. 12, 21).

It is clear that the faithful need the help of the absolutely divine Redeemer, as He himself said: "0hne me ye can do nothing" (John 15, 5), and thence to the apostle saying any increase in the construction of this mystical body of Christ, the head, is derived (Eph. 4, 16, Col. 2, 19). However, it must also be noted, strange as it may appear that Christ requires the help of his limbs. And this is especially true of the supreme pastor, so far as he takes the place of Jesus Christ to the burden of the pastoral office not to succumb, he has others to participate in not a few of his duties called, and requires daily support through the prayer support of the universal Church. Moreover, our Savior will, if he ruled himself invisible way to church, the participation of members of his mystical body in the execution of the work of redemption. This is not from neediness and weakness, but rather because he has himself for the greater glory of his immaculate bride is arranged. Namely on the cross as He died, He has the immense treasure of salvation bequeathed to his church, without having contributed their part to do so. Where, however, is about to hand out the treasure, He makes his spotless bride in this work of sanctification not only attend, but wish that this would cause even added a sense of their activities. A truly schauererregendes mystery that one can never see enough: that the salvation of many depends on the prayers and voluntary penances of the members of the mystical body of Jesus Christ, which they take for that purpose in itself, and from participation, the herdsmen and the faithful, especially the fathers and mothers to make our divine Redeemer have.

The reasons just explained, showing that Christ the Lord is the head of his social body to be called, are now adding three others that are closely related to each other.

We start with the uniformity that is evident between head and members on the basis of the same nature. It should be noted: our nature does not reach that of the angels, but it has by God's kindness, the angel of nature an advantage: "Christ is in fact," as Aquinas says, "the head of the angels. For Christ is above the angels and his humanity by ... He also enlightened and influenced the angel as a person. However, where there is the nature of equality in question, Christ is not the head of the angels, because He is the words of the apostle not of angels but of the adopted children of Abraham " (Comm. in Ep. ad Eph., cap. 1, lect. 8; Heb. 2, 16-17.). But not only our nature Christ assumed, but He is also the fragility, capacity for suffering and mortality of his body has become our blood relatives. But if the word "emptied himself and took form of a servant" (Phil. 2, 7 done), this therefore also to us, his brothers after the flesh, making the divine nature advantageous (2 Pet. 1, 4 .) here in our earthly exile by sanctifying grace, and there in the eternal home of obtaining eternal salvation. Therefore wanted to be the indigenous people of the Eternal Father's Son, that we would be the image of the Son of God uniformly (Rom. 8, 29) and in the image of our Creator, our renewed (Col. 3.10.). All those, therefore, the boast of the Christian name need not only to our divine Redeemer as a sublime and most perfect model of all virtues considered, but also as FLkht of sin and fervent holiness pursuit thus bring his teaching and his life in their moral behavior expressed that, if the Lord appeared to Him be like in his glory and see Him as He is (1.Joh.3, 2.)

But Christ wants the individual members are similar to Him, He also wants it by the whole body of the Church. And this happens in fact, by the Church teaches, following the example of their founder, directs, and offering of the divine sacrifice. It also provides, by following the evangelical counsels of poverty, obedience and chastity of the Savior in the pristine dar. itself in its many and diverse religious communities, which form, as her jewels, she shows us a sense Christ himself, as he looking at the mountains praying or preaching to the crowds or the sick and injured heals, converted the sinner to do good, or donates all blessings. It is not surprising, therefore, if the church as long as it dwells on earth, haunted by the example of Christ with persecution, abuse and suffering is.

Moreover, Christ must therefore be considered as head of the Church, his mystical body, because draws from the wealth and perfection of the supernatural gifts that He bestows. As is - as stated by several fathers - is the head of our mortal body in possession of all the senses, while the other members share our organism only in the sense of feeling, including all the virtues, gifts and grace of the advantages of the Christian community in Christ the head radiate most perfectly again. "It was God's" will to let him live in all its fullness "(Col. 1, 19). Him adorn those supernatural gifts which has the hypostatic union of two natures in the aftermath: in Him, the Holy Spirit dwells in a such bounty that they are not greater can be conceived. He is given "power over all flesh" (John 17, 2) are abundantly in Him "all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge" (Col. 2.3.) . Even those of knowledge, called knowledge of Gottschauung owns, He in such abundance that they are well in range and clarity, the beatific sight of all the saints in heaven overlooked. And finally, He is so full of grace and truth that we are all out of his inexhaustible wealth received (John i. 14-16.).

These words of the disciple to whom Jesus gave his special love, give us occasion to quote the last particularly obvious argument that Christ is the Lord to name the head of his mystical body. As is to distribute the nerves from the head of all the members of our bodies and give them the ability to feel and move, it infuses our Redeemer one of his Church the power and strength, by which the faithful recognize the divine things more clearly and zealous aspire. From Him in the body of the church exudes all the light which the faithful receive supernatural light and any grace by which they will be holy as He is holy yourself.

His whole Church of Christ illuminates, something that may almost be proved from many passages of Scripture and the holy fathers. "No one has ever seen God, the only begotten Son, that rests in the bosom of the Father, the customer has placed him" (Jn 1, 18).

to give as a teacher coming from God (John 3.2.) to witness the truth (John 18.37.), he illuminated the young Church of the Apostles with His light so that the apostle prince exclaimed: "Lord, to whom shall we go? You have the words of eternal life "(John 6, 68). He was the evangelist from the sky in the manner that it were, as members of Christ chronicling what they speak, by the dictates of head saw (August., De cons. Protestant, I, 35, 54: Migne, P, L . XXXIV, 1070th). And so it is still for us, we linger here in this earthly exile, founder of the faith as He's finisher in the home (Hebrews 12, 2) is. He is the one the faithful pours the light of faith, the pastors and teachers, and especially his representative on earth with the supernatural gifts of knowledge, insight and wisdom enriched in order to preserve the treasure of faith, faithful, brave defending, more pious and declare eagerly and secure. He is, after all, who, though invisible, is general councils of the Church and enlightened (Cyr. Alex., Ep 55 de Symb: Migne, PG LXXVII, 293).

Christ is the founder and creator of holiness. For there is no saving act that is not derived from Him as its source is supernatural. "Without Me", He says, "you can do nothing" (John 15, 5.) When we moved if committed debt of soul pain and regret will be, and if we convert us in childlike fear and hope to God we are always guided by his power. Grace and glory arise from its inexhaustible abundance. Especially the more prominent members of his mystical body endowed with the gifts of our Savior incessantly of the Council, the strength, of fear and piety, so that the entire body from day to day more and more is increasing in purity and holiness of life. And if the sacraments of the church with an outward ritual to be donated, then he brings himself out in the souls of the effect (S. Thom., III, q. 64, a. 3 2). Likewise, it is He who feeds the redeemed with his flesh and blood, and calms the confused, excited passions. It increases the grace and the glory prepared for soul and body. These treasures of the divine goodness, he granted the members of his mystical body, not merely because He as a Eucharistic sacrificial lamb on earth and in heaven as a glorified by pointing to his wounds and with sincere prayer from the Eternal Father asks, but also because it for every detail at every single grace "to the extent that it distributes in the Christ" (Eph. 4.7. selects), determined and turns. It follows that the divine Redeemer as the main source of strength "to the whole body, joined and held together with the aid of all the joints to perform the service after the activity, each member is assigned. This takes place the growth of the body, and it builds itself in love. " (Eph. 4:16; Col. 2.19.)

We will have the top, Venerable Brethren, set out a clear and concise, as Christ the Lord to flow from his rich gifts of his divine fullness in the church let out, so they will give him the likeness as possible. This discussion is certainly the clarification of the third ground, from which it follows, so the social body of the Church bears the glorious name of Christ: the reason is that our Saviour himself, the church founded by him with divine power is replaced. How Bellarmine (De Rom. Pont., I, 9; De Concil. Has II, 19) noted fine and deep, this definition is the body of Christ can not be explained merely by the fact that Christ is the head of his mystical body must be called but also from the fact that He is such a carrier of the church and in their lives so to speak, that they themselves were, a second Christ. Especially the claims of the Apostle to the Gentiles when he wrote to the Corinthians in einfachhin (1 Cor. 12, 12) the church "Christ" refers, apparently by mimicking the master himself, he, as he pursued the church, from the sky calling (Acts 9, 4, 22, 7, 26, 14): "Saul, Saul, why are you persecuting me?" Yes, if we Gregory of Nyssa (Greg. Nyssen., De vita Moysis: Migne, PG XLIV, 385 are to believe), the church is often the Apostle, "Christ commanded", not even you, venerable brothers, the word Augustine unknown: "Christ preaches Christ" (Sermon, CCCLIV, 1: Migne, PL XXXIX, 1563.).

This elevated designation is to be understood not as if the unspeakable band, which the Son of God united with a certain human nature, even the whole church embrace. On the contrary, due to the fact that our Savior the goods that are primarily owned him, then tells his church that all of these in her life, the visible and the geheimnisumhüllten, makes possible image of Christ completely expressed. For, according to the legal program, with which the divine Saviour sent the Apostles into the world, as He himself was sent by the Father (John 17, 18 et 20, 21), is He who baptizes with the Church teaches and rules , dissolves and binds, and offering of sacrifices. Means that higher, all internal and sublime gift which we have already touched, where we described that is the kind of influence of the head to the members, can attend Christ the Lord Church in his supernatural life, permeates their whole body with his divine power and nourishes and maintains the individual links according to the rank they occupy in the body, approximately in the manner in which nourishes the vine its related Rebzweige and fruitful makes (Leo XIII, Sapientiae Christianae: ASS XXII, Cognitum 392; Satis: ibidem, XXVIII, 710).

If we carefully consider this divine given by Christ living and force principle in itself, insofar as it is the source of any established gift and grace, we will easily understand that there is nothing else than the Comforter Spirit of the Father and the son starts, and the special way in the spirit of Christ and the Spirit of the Son is called (Rom. 8, 9, 2 Cor. 3, 17, Gal. 4, 6). Because with this spirit of truth and grace of the Son of God in the intact womb of the Virgin has anointed his soul. This spirit considered it his delight to live in life-giving heart as Savior in his favorite temple. This spirit has earned us Christ on the cross by his own blood. Him, he breathed on the apostles and the church gave him so for the remission of sins (John 20th) 22. However, while only Christ in this spirit unbounded wealth received (John 3, 34), it is the members of the mystical body of the fullness of Christ himself awarded only in proportion as it is Christ (Eph. 1, 8, 4, 7.) When Christ is glorified on the cross, his spirit of the church shall be notified in abundance, so that they themselves and their individual members by the day our Savior similar. The spirit of Christ, the one who has made us adopted children of God (Romans 8, is 14-17; Gal. 4, 6-7.), So we once "all the glory with unveiled face, watch the Lord of glory, and so be transformed into glory on the same image "(2 Cor. 3, 18).

The spirit of Christ comes as the invisible principle to the task of connecting all parts of the body between themselves and with their exalted head, because he is quite in the head, quite the body, quite different in the limbs. The latter but he shares with his presence and his assistance in various degrees, depending on their various tasks and offices, and depending on the greater or less extent of their spiritual health. It is he who must be regarded as a result of his heavenly edema in all parts of the body as the principle of any truly fruitful for the good life activity. It is he who, although working even present in all limbs and in them a divine manner, yet acts in the child by the parent service. He is finite, which gives the Church under the pangs of his grace continually new growth, but disdains to live in totally separate from the body members by sanctifying grace. And this is precisely the presence of the Spirit of Jesus Christ our wise predecessors immortal memory Leo XIII. Divinum illud in his encyclical with the words expressed briefly and accurately: "There is enough of a sentence: Christ is the head of the Church, the Holy Spirit her soul" (ASS, XXIX, p. 650).

If we contrast the inner life force, is obtained by means of which the whole Christian community of its founder, now not in itself, but look at the springs from their creaturely effects, it consists in the supernatural graces which our Savior together with His spirit of Church gives, and also with his spirit, as the donor of supernatural light and casters of the holiness produces. The church is therefore, like all members of their sacred word of the great apostle to make their own: "I live, but live not I, but Christ in me" (Gal. 2, 20).

Our statements about the "mystical head" (Ambros., De Elia et ieiun., 10 et 1483rd 36-37, Psalm 118, serm. 20 2: Migne, PL XIV, 710 et XV) would remain incomplete if we not, at least briefly, whether the following sentence of the same Apostle touched: "Christ is the head of the church, He is the Savior of his body" (Eph. 5, 23) is. For in these words, the allusion is to the last reason why the body of the Church bears the name of Christ. Christ is in fact the Divine Savior of this Body. He is still fully justified by the Samaritans as "the blessed Saviour of the world" (John 4, 42), yes, you certainly have to address him as "the Savior of all", although one must add, with Paul, "primarily of the faithful "(1 Tim. 4, 10). Above all others namely, he has his limbs, which form the church, purchased with his blood (Acts 20, 28). It remains however to discuss this idea further, after we sprung from the top of the Cross Church of Christ, the giver of light, the casters of the holiness and the holder of his mystical body acted in sufficient detail. Rather, we have reason to thank God constantly for this and humble sense to think about it carefully. What our Savior has but once started on the cross, that He is in his heavenly glory on without ceasing. "Our main - that Augustine sets - intercede for us: the one he takes to members, others he chastises others, he explained, others He comforts, He creates other, others he cites other, he calls back, others he is improving, He replaced another "(Enarr. in ps., LXXXV, 5: Migne, PL XXXVII, 1085th). Us but has become the task of Christ to serve in this saving work helping hand, "we made through the One and the One are redeemed and redeem himself" (Clem. Alex., Flows., VII, 2: Migne, PG IX, 413th).

Let's go one step further now, Venerable Brethren, and we discuss the point that the reason why the body of Christ, the Church, mystical, mysterious, that is, must be called, should move into the proper light. This designation, which was already common in several church writers of antiquity, is confirmed by quite a few documents of the Popes. But not just for a reason, that word is justified. It differs first of the social body of the Church, whose head and handlebar is Christ, by his physical body, which, born of the Virgin Mother of God, now sits at the right hand of the Father and is hidden under the Eucharistic species. Likewise - and this is because of the time errors of great importance - this term includes any natural body, it is a physical, be it a so-called moral from.

In a natural body that is the unifying principle linking the various parts so that they do not own more self-existence. In contrast, combines the mystical body of unifying principle, although it goes to the core, the limbs with each other so that each retain their own personality completely. If we then consider the mutual relationship between the whole and its individual members, it follows that: in every living physical body all the various links in the last analysis are only for the benefit of the whole organism because, while every social structure of humans, when on their last end, usefulness, is ordered to the benefit of all and at the same time every part, because these are people, yes. So to return to our cause, as the Son of the Eternal Father to the eternal salvation of all of us came down from heaven, He has made the body of the Church and with the divine spirit inspired for the purpose of the eternal happiness of immortal souls secure work and, according to the saying of the Apostle: "Everything belongs to you, but it is Christ and Christ is God" (1 Cor. 3, 23, Pius XI., Divini Redemptoris: AAS, 1937, p. 80). As is the church for the good of the faithful there, she has the determination of God and He has sent to glorify Jesus Christ.

We then compare the mystical body with a so-called moral entity, we must also find a by no means as small, but highly significant and serious difference. In the moral body that is the unifying principle is simply the common purpose and collective cooperation of all for the same purpose by means of a social authority. In the mystical body against which we act, this interaction is yet another internal principle that both the whole organism, such as individual members of inherent real and powerful and is of such grandeur that it considered in unifying all the ties that a physical or moral body together, immeasurably far overlooked. This principle is, as said above, not natural, but to the supernatural order, yes it is in itself almost infinite and uncreated: the Spirit of God, which, as the angelic teacher, "according to the number one and the same, the whole church met and agreed "(De Veritate, q. 29, a. 4, c.).

The correct meaning of the word "mystical" So recalls the fact that the Church, which is regarded as one of its kind in the perfect society, not only for social and legal elements and relationships exist. She is far better than any other human bodies (Leo XIII christianae, Sapientiae: ASS, XXII, p. 392nd), which it dominates, as can the grace of nature behind and as the immortal all that is transitory (Leo XIII, Satis Cognitum: ASS, XXVIII, p. 724th). Those purely human societies, including the state, is certainly not to despise or underestimate. But the church as a whole does not belong to the order of these things, just as man as a whole not to the structure of our mortal body collapses, (Ibid, p. 710th). For the legal relationships on which the church is based and which also belong to their constituents come specifically the divine constitution given by Christ and have their share of supernatural achieve its goal. But what the church high above any natural order hinaushebt, is the Spirit of Christ, the source of all graces, gifts and charisms constantly and intimately, the church met and works in it. As the construction of our mortal body is a wonderful work of our Creator's true, but falls far below the lofty dignity of our soul, just has the social fabric of the Christian community, how much it proclaims the wisdom of his divine Master, but only a very subordinate rank when you compare it with the spiritual gifts with which the church is equipped and which she lives, as well as divine with their origin. From all that we in our letter to you, Venerable Brethren, have been explained, it is clear that those who are in a serious error, present themselves at their own caprice a hidden, quite invisible church, as well as those who are the church as a kind of human organization think with a certain statutory order and with external rites, but without communication supernatural life (Ibid, p. 710th). No, like Christ, the head and model of the Church, "is not quite where we in Him either to human, visible ... or just look at the divine, invisible nature ... but as He One of the two, and in two natures is ...: so his mystical body "(Ibid, p. 710th), but the word of God has taken human nature of suffering, so that after the formation of a visible and consecrated by the blood divine society" of the human a visible line the way way back to the invisible "(p. Thomas, De veritate, q. 29, a. 4, a. 3.)

We therefore regret and reject even the fatal mistake of those who are dreaming of a selbstersonnene Church, namely, a love built up and preserved only by society, they face - with a certain contempt - another which they call the right church. introduce such a distinction is quite erroneous. It fails to recognize that the divine Redeemer, founded by him as a community of people in their own way wanted to perfect society by all legal and social components just for the purpose of healing so that the work of redemption on earth endure forever secure (Vatican Conc. , Sess. IV, Const. Dogm. de Eccl.), and that He wanted them to achieve the same end of the Comforter Spirit with heavenly graces and gifts richly. Certainly, they should follow the will of the Eternal Father, "the kingdom of the Son of His love" (Col. 1, his 13th), but in truth it such a kingdom, in which all offer up their faith by a complete submission of intellect and will (Conc. Vatican, Sess. III, Const. de fide cath., cap 3.) should in humility and obedience to the will be similar to that for us, "obedient unto death" (Phil. 2, 8) . It is therefore no real opposition or contradiction between the invisible mission of the Holy Spirit and the law of Christ received by the Office of the shepherds and teachers. Both complement and perfect each other like us in body and soul, and proceed from one and the same, our Saviour: He certainly his apostles the divine breath, breathed with the words: "Receive the Holy Spirit" (John 20,22.) but he has also given them a clear mandate: "As the Father has sent me, so I send you" (John 20,21.) said, and in the same sense: "He who hears you, hears me" (Lk . 10, 16).

But when one perceives some in the church, which reveals the weakness of our human nature, it is not their legal status a burden, but rather the lamentable tendency of individuals to evil. This weakness tolerates her divine founder in the higher members of his mystical body so, so that the virtue of the shepherds of the flock and tested and will grow in all the merits of the Christian faith. For, as said above, Christ was founded by the sinners from the community to know Him not excluded. If so many members to suffer spiritual affliction, so that is no reason to diminish our love for the church, but rather with its members to have greater compassion.

Without blemish our venerable mother shines in its sacraments, through which she gives birth and nourish their children, in the belief that she always kept intact, in their sacred laws by which binds them all, and in the evangelical counsels, which encourages them; finally, in the heavenly. Gifts and charisms, by which it produces in inexhaustible fertility (Conc. Vatican, Sess. III, Const. De fide cath., Cap 3.) Incalculable hosts of martyrs, virgins and confessors. You can not be blamed if some of its members are sick or sore. It begs so on their behalf, even every day to God: "Forgive us our debts," and is dedicated to continually their spiritual care with a strong motherly heart. So when we use the term "mystical" body of Christ, already lie in the meaning of this word very serious lessons for us. Such warning to sounds in the words of St. Leo: "Know, Christian, your dignity, and divine nature become advantageous even turn back, not back by unworthy conduct to the old miserable condition! Remember whose head and whose body part you are ' ! (Sermon XXI, 3: Migne, P. L. LIV, 192-193.).

We would now, Venerable Brethren, in a special way to talk about our close relationship with Christ in his body the church. Is this - as St. Augustine says rightly (August., Contra Faust., 21, 8: Migne, PL XLII, 392nd) - something sublime, mysterious and divine, it is often wrong but it is for this reason some understood and expressed. First, it is clear that this compound is very intimately with Christ. In the Scriptures it is compared with the band in a chaste marriage, the unity of life-like vine and Rebzweigen and with the organism of our body (Eph. 5, 22-23, Jn 15, 1-5, Eph. 4, 16 .). She is portrayed as so deep inside that it is the words of the Apostle of the Gentiles: "He (Christ) is the head of the body, the Church" (Col. 1, 18), is the ancient, continually passed down from father teaching, Divine Savior forms together with its social body but one mystical person, or, as Augustine says, "the whole Christ" (Enarr in Ps' 17.51 et XC, II, I: Migne, PL XXXVI, 154 et XXXVII 1159th) . Yes, our Saviour himself did not hesitate to compare in his high priestly prayer that association with that wonderful unity by which the Son of the Father and the Father in the Son (John 17, 21-23.).

Our union in Christ and with Christ, but first results from the fact that the Christian community by the will of its founder, is a perfect social body and must therefore be united in their common pursuit by all members of the same goal. The nobler but the goal is the directed this effort, the divine is the source from which it springs, so sublime, no doubt, also designed the unit. Now his goal is the highest, namely the continued sanctification of the members of this body itself to the glory of God and the Lamb which is sacrificed (Rev. 5, 12-13.). His source, however, is quite divine: the counsel of the Eternal Father and the will of our Savior liebestarke, but also the illuminations and the drive of the Holy Spirit in the depths of our souls. If we can not put the slightest redeeming act, unless the Holy Spirit, as there were countless multitudes of different ethnicity and race in full harmony, the glory of the triune God, strive without the force of that edema, which the father and son in a single, Eternal love goes out?

But since this social body of Christ, as we have explained above, be visible to the will of its founder, must it necessarily follows that also all the members of that interaction must occur in the external appearance by the confession of that faith, by the same sacraments Community and participation in the same victims, as well as through active observation of the same commandments. In addition, one must certainly be present all visible head of which the activities and cooperation of all addressed effectively to achieve the desired end: We think the Vicar of Jesus Christ on earth. As is sent to the assistance of the Divine Savior, the Spirit of truth, has to take it instead of him (John 14.16 et 26), the invisible government of the Church, He has entrusted to Peter and his successors to him and to represent the earth and take over the visible head of the Christian community. These legal gangs which in itself already the bonds of each other, even the highest human society, far surpassing is necessary nor any other unit basis: it is those three virtues, by which we are with God and each other intimately linked: the Christian faith, hope and love.

In fact, it is only "one Lord," as the Apostle exhorts, "only one faith" (Eph.4, 5), namely that faith by which we cleave to the one God and to Him, He has sent Jesus Christ (Eph.4, 5.) How strong we are united by this faith with God to show the words of love disciple of Jesus: "Whoever confesses always that Jesus is the Son of God, God abides in him, and he in God" (1 John 4, 15 ). Likewise, we are intimately but by the Christian faith with each other and connected to our head. For as we have all of us are believers, "the same spirit of faith" (2 Cor. 4, 13), we are enlightened by the same light of Christ, nourished by the same power of Christ, by the same teacher and the same official authority of Christ conducted. Now if the same spirit of faith inspired us all, we all live the same life "by faith in the Son of God, who loved us and gave himself for us" (Gal. 2, 20), and how Christ our head, the author our faith is when he recorded with a living faith in our hearts lives (Eph. 3, 17), He will also be his finisher (Hebrews 12, 2.)

But, as we by faith here on earth cleave to God as the source of truth, we seek Him through the virtue of Christian hope as the source of salvation, "while we await the blessed hope and glorious manifestation of the great God" (Tit . 2, 13). Whether this common desire for the kingdom of heaven, which we see in this world is not our permanent home, but the future are looking for (Heb. 13, 14) and long for the glory of heaven, the Apostle to the Gentiles says without hesitation: "One body and one Spirit, as ye are called in one hope of your calling "(Eph. 4, 4), yes, Christ lives in us, as it as the hope of glory (Col. 1, 27).

The bonds of faith and hope, through which we connect with our divine Redeemer in His mystical body, are certainly of great importance and high importance. But certainly no less important and effective are the bonds of love. For if in the natural sphere of love, which springs from the true friendship is something very sublime, what one must not then say that supernatural love which is of God poured into our hearts? "God is love, and whoever abides in love abides in God and God in him" (1.Joh.4, 16). This love has, as it were under a God given law, the effect that in our heart of loving Him in return can even go down in accordance with the words: "If anyone loves me ..., my father will love him, and we will come to him and make Our home with him "(Joh.14, 23). Love binds us so closely with Christ than any other virtue. Gripped by her heavenly glow, so many children of the Church have suffered shame and joy for him until his last breath and blood drop any, even the worst torments and trials endured. Therefore, our divine Saviour warns us so insistently, "abide in my love!" and since a love remains weak and completely devoid of content if it does not unfold in good works and takes shape, he immediately adds: "If you keep My commandments, you remain in my love, as well as I've kept the instructions of my father and remain in his love "(Joh.15 .9 to 10.).

But this love for God and Christ must meet the love of neighbor. How could we also claim to love God our Savior, if we hated those whom He redeemed himself with his precious blood has to members of his mystical body to make it? For this reason, we also exhorts the beloved disciple of Jesus with the words: "If someone says I love God, but it hates his brother, he is a liar. For how can one love God whom he does not see his brother when he does not love, whom he sees? We have the commandment of God: He who loves God must also love his brother! " (1 John 4, 20-21.). Even this is fact: the more we will be connected, the more we are members one of another (Romans 12, 5), in the unanimous concern for one another (1 Cor. 12, with God and Christ) 25. And we are even more connected with each other in love and be together, the more ardent the love is what we cling to God and our divine head.

But we have embraced the only begotten Son of God before the foundation of the world with its beginningless, endless knowledge and his eternal love. And reveal to them his love in a very obvious and wonderful way, he raised our human nature into personal union with himself, so that, as Maximus of Turin observed with simple simplicity, "in Christ our own flesh loves us" (Sermon XXIX: Migne, PL LVII, 594th).

Those loving knowledge, however, with which the divine Redeemer to meet us from the first moment of his incarnation on surpasses all human endeavor and understanding. For, in virtue of that blessed God show, which he enjoyed immediately after conception in the womb of the Mother of God, to Him are all members of his mystical body constantly and at any moment now and he embraces them all with his redeeming love. O wonderful condescension of God's goodness without us; o incomprehensible depth of a love borders! In the crib, on the cross, in the eternal glory of the Father, Christ forever, all members of the church in mind and heart, with much greater clarity and love as a mother to her child on her lap, as everyone knows and loves himself.

From the above can be seen, Venerable Brethren, why the apostle Paul writes so frequently, Christ is alive in us and we in Christ. There is also a deeper reason for our observations Christ lives in us by His Spirit, He tells us, and through whom He so active in us is that all the supernatural effects of the Holy Spirit in the souls of Christ also be attributed must (S. Thom., Comm. in Ep ad Eph., cap. II, lect.) 5. "If someone is not the spirit of Christ, says the apostle, he belongs to Him not. ... Other hand, Christ is in you, so the spirit lives on account of justification" (Rom. 8, 9-10.). The communication of the Spirit of Christ, with which all the gifts, virtues and charisms that dwell in the head to a superior, abundant and effective way, transferred to all members of the Church and in them, according to the position they occupy in the mystical body of Jesus Christ of day to day, perfected, has also meant that the church is like, the fullness and completion of the Savior and Christ in every way, as it finds fulfillment in the Church (S. Thom., Comm. in Ep ad Eph., cap . I, lect. 8.) With these words, we have touched the deepest reason why, in the opinion of St. Augustine, which we already briefly mentioned, the mystical head, which is Christ and the Church, which represents here on earth as a second Christ his place, the one represent new people, by the incessant in continuing the work of salvation on the Cross heaven and earth are connected: we believe Christ, as head and body, the whole Christ.

We know very well that the understanding and explanation of this mysterious doctrine of our union with the Divine Savior and is prevented especially about the housing of the Holy Spirit in the soul by a variety of veils and wrapped a result of the weakness of the inquiring human mind in a certain darkness . But we also know that from the right and diligent study of this subject and from the conflict and the discussion of the different opinions and views, provided that such research is guided by the love of truth and of the obedience due to the Church, rich and precious fruitful insights, is achieved by the sacred knowledge in these areas of real progress. Therefore we do not blame those who seek different paths and ways to get closer to the sublime mystery of our wonderful union with Christ and to lighten forces. But in order abzuirren is missing from the true doctrine and the right teaching of the Church, is true of all as a common, incontrovertible principle, any kind of mystical union decline, making the believers somehow exceed the boundaries of the creature and so bold in the realm of the divine to enter looking that they were also only a single property of the eternal Godhead, as it settle itself. In addition, all hold without wavering mind that in these things all that relates to God as the last efficient cause, of the whole Holy Trinity must be attributed.

Furthermore, we should probably remember that this is a hidden secret that we during this earthly exile never fully revealed through and express in human language. They speak of a dwelling of the divine persons, in that they are present in created, sentient beings on inscrutable manner and form the object of their knowledge and love (S. Thom., I, q. 43, a. 3), but on a way that transcends all creaturely capacity and low internal and unique. Do we want to familiarize us at least roughly, we may by the Vatican Council (Sess. 3, Const. De fid. Cath., Cap.4 leave.) To use for such things urgently recommended statement ignored. It is that when we search for one if ever so slight increase in our knowledge of divine secrets compare these with each other and with the highest goal to which they are ordered to. And rightly so our wise, unforgettable predecessor Leo XIII apply. Because it speaks of our union with Christ and through us the divine indwelling Comforter, the eyes at that blissful show, see the sky once in this mystical connection to their conclusion and their completion is. "This wonderful union, he says, are called indwelling is only quantitatively, ie, different in degree from those in the God of the heavenly blessedness embraces" (Divinum illud: AS S "XXIX, p. 653rd). In that Look, it will be allow us to completely ineffable way, the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit with the sharpened through the glory of light eyes of the mind to consider, the outputs of the divine persons through all eternity witness up close and taste a happiness , similar to that, making the most holy and undivided Trinity is blessed.

What we now about the close connection of the mystical body of Jesus Christ have argued with his head, would seem to us, however imperfect, if we not at least something added on the most holy Eucharist, so that combination in this mortal life is led as if to their peak.

Christ the Lord wanted, namely, that the wonderful, never sufficiently praised relations between us and our divine head through the Eucharistic sacrifice of the faithful will appear in a special way. In fact, the priests represented not only the body of our Saviour, but also of the whole mystical body and the individual believer. But so did the believers bring even the immaculate victim, attended only by the priest's word on the altar was, at the hands of that priest in a praying community is with him to the Eternal Father as a pleasing praise and atonement for the concerns of the whole Church. And as the Divine Saviour dying on the cross himself as head of the whole human race, the Eternal Father to sacrifice brought, so he sacrifices in this "pure oblation" (Mal. 1, 11) not only himself as head of the Church of the Heavenly father, but in himself and his mystical elements that he may indeed all, they may be weak and ill, has concluded lovingly in his heart.

The Sacrament of Holy Eucharist, but that is a vivid and wonderful picture of the unity of the Church - as the will to transform some bread from a number of grains (Didache 9, 4) - gives us the Author of supernatural grace itself, so that we Him draw from that spirit of love that drives us, not our own, but Christ's life went to, and love in all the members of his social body the Savior himself.

Is there at this sad time conditions under which we suffer at present, many of which Christ the Lord, hidden under the veils of the Eucharist, such cleave that neither sorrow nor fear, hunger or nakedness or danger or persecution and sword it to would be able to separate from his love (Romans 8, 35), so no doubt the holy banquet, which is not without divine providence in our time, from childhood to receive back more often, the source of that strength of mind, are not rare in Christendom to raise up heroes and is able to obtain.

These are the lessons to, Venerable Brethren, which recognize the right and pious believers and faithful record. Then they can easily guard against those errors which in some quarters as a result of random exploration of this difficult subject not grow without much danger to the Catholic faith and confusion of souls.

Some consider too little, that the apostle Paul spoke only metaphorically on the subject failed, has the much needed distinction between physical, moral and mystical body, and thus bring on an entirely wrong concept of unity. Namely, let the divine Redeemer and the members of the Church to a single physical person together, and while they attribute divine attributes to man to submit to Christ the Lord of the error and the human inclination to evil. Such teaching is misleading in its opposition to Catholicism, to the tradition of the Fathers, and also view and spirit of the Apostle of the Gentiles. He does indeed, at the wonderfully intimate connection with Christ's mystical body, but he is still as bride and groom facing each other (Eph. 5, 22-23.).

No less away from the truth of the dangerous error of those who want to derive from our connection with Christ, a mysterious unhealthy quietism. Then the whole spiritual life of Christians and their progress in virtue only of the effectiveness of the Holy Spirit attributed with total disregard and leaving aside personal involvement, we owe Him. Certainly no one can deny that the Holy Spirit of Jesus Christ is the only source from which flows down all supernatural life in the church and its members. For the "grace and glory give the Lord" (Psalm 83.12.), Says the Psalmist. But that remain, the people constantly in the works of holiness, that they move forward undeterred in the grace and virtue, that they themselves manfully to the summit of Christian perfection strive upwards and other spur to efforts to all want the Spirit of God act only if people help themselves through daily, energetic effort their part. "Not sleeping," says St. Ambrose, "but the zealots will be donated to the divine blessings" (Expos. Evang. Sec Luke 4, 49: Migne, PL XV, 1626.). For if remain even in our mortal body the members only consistently healthy and vigorous exercise, so this is even in a much higher degree of social Body of Jesus Christ, keep in even the individual members all of their personal freedom and responsibility. So too could the same man who uttered the words: "I live, yet not I, but Christ lives in me" (Gal. 2, 20), said without hesitation: "His (ie God's) grace is not in me ineffective remained, but I labored more than all of them, yet not I but the grace of God with me "(1 Cor. 15, 10). It is thus clear that there will be serviceable by those false doctrines the mystery of which we act, not the spiritual progress of the faithful, but in deplorable ways their destruction.

The same happens with the false beliefs of those who claim that one should not judge the frequent confession of venial sins, so high, the general confession of sin, that the Bride of Christ day by day together with her in the Lord united children by the priest at the foot of the Altar dock area was preferable to her. Certainly, such sins, as you know, Venerable Brethren, to be atoned manifold, highly commendable manner. But to the zealous daily progress on the path of virtue, we earnestly want to know more pious practice of frequent confession recommended that has not been introduced without the impulse of the Holy Spirit in the Church. But is promoted by him self, the Christian humility, deepened the moral weakness taken at the root, the spiritual negligence and laxity fought, clean conscience, the will strengthened, a salutary spirit enables management and increased power of the sacrament's grace. So like those which reduce the ranks of the younger clergy appreciation of the frequent confession and seek to reduce, probably remember that they are pursuing something that is alien to the spirit of Christ in the mystical body of our Saviour a curse.

Some people speak from our prayers and all real power, or seek to teach others the opinion that the private prayers to God have little significance, but rather come to the public, on behalf of the church, performed prayers of the true value because they come from the mystical body of Jesus Christ. That is not correct. The divine Redeemer is not only in the closest fellowship with his church as the beloved bride, but in it He is also intimately united with the soul of each believer and longs above all for the Holy Communion, trust dialogue with their to lead. Although the public prayer, as it is done by the mother church itself, because of the dignity of the Bride of Christ surpasses any other, so spare change however anyone, even the very private prayers, not the dignity and strength. They contribute even more to the benefit of the whole Mystical Body. For in him is no good work, done no Tugendakt of individual members, not as a result of the communion of saints would also benefit the whole. It is not denied the individual also, because they are members of this body, special, purely temporal gifts for themselves to ask if it only the humble submission to God's will is respected: they remain so independent persons and subject to their personal needs (S. Thom. II-II, q. 83, a. 5 et 6). What will finally esteem felt for all the consideration of heavenly truths, it is clear from official statements of the church and out of practice and the type of all saints.

Finally, one can also encounter the view that we should not judge our prayers directly to the person of Jesus Christ, they would rather turn to the Eternal Father, through Christ as our Saviour as head of his mystical body as "the mediator between God and people "(1 Tim. 2, 5 should) be considered. But such a statement not only contradicts the spirit of the Church and the custom of the faithful, but also contradicts the truth. Namely, Christ is for us to take very clear, with two natures at the same time the head of the whole Church (S. Thom., De Veritate, q. 29, a. 4, c.), and the rest He also solemnly declares itself "If ye shall ask Me for anything in my name, I'll do it" (John 14, 14). Certainly, especially during Holy Sacrifice of the Mass, where Christ is both priest and victim sacrificial lamb in a special way and so carries the Mid Office, the prayers addressed mostly by his only son, the everlasting Father. But even here, even in the holy sacrifice, often turns to prayer and the divine Redeemer. It ought to be known to all Christians and, of course, that the man Jesus Christ while the Son of God, and God Himself. And so to some extent answered by the Church militant, when they worship the spotless lamb, and the consecrated host and implores the voice of the triumphant church, which does not cease to sing: "To him who sits on the throne, and unto the Lamb be praise and honor and glory and power forever and ever! " (Rev. 5, 13).

We have so far, Venerable Brethren, in explanation of the mystery, which sees us all hidden with Christ in themselves as teachers of the whole church lights up the mind with the light of truth. We now believe it or for the duty of Our pastoral office, also stimulate the heart to that fervent love of the mystical body of Christ, which manifests itself not only in thought and speech, but also in action. Even the members of the Old Testament have sung their earthly holy city with the Psalm: "If I forget thee, O Jerusalem, then one should forget my right hand, my tongue shall stick to my palate if I never think of your, if I never Jerusalem as my most excellent joy look! " (Ps, 136, 5-6.). With how much greater pride and joy, we must rejoice vivid the fact that we may live in the city, built on the sacred heights of living and selected blocks, "on the noble cornerstone, Christ Jesus himself!" (Eph 2, 20, 1 Pet. 2, 4-5.). Nothing more honorable, nothing more sublime, nothing more glorious can ever be conceived as belonging to the holy, Catholic, Apostolic, Roman Church, by which we are members of the same venerable body, guided by the one supreme head, imbued with the same divine spirit, strengthened by the same doctrine and the same bread of angels in this Erdenverbannung until we one day enjoy eternal happiness in heaven, may the same.

However, not the angel of darkness, who was in an angel of light (2 Cor. 11, 14 dresses) to be cheated, the supreme law of our love, bride of Christ to love as Christ loved them and with his blood bought. Expensive to us, therefore, be the sacraments, which the good Mother Church strengthens us and the celebration, which comforts us and pleased the sacred songs and liturgical traditions, which she draws our hearts heavenward; expensive but also the sacramentals and the several exercises piety, which she lovingly with the hearts of the faithful to the spirit of Christ permeates and elevates. As it is our filial duty, to recognize their mother's love for us, even more, to their worship of Christ conferred authority that our understanding of obedience to Christ (2 Cor. 10, 5 captures). Virtue of which we are bound to obey its laws and its moral precepts, which sometimes feels hard our fallen nature, we are reminded to bow to the resistance of the body, we carry through voluntary mortification, and sometimes even allowed us to include pleasures . It is also not enough to love this mystical body only insofar as he by his divine head, and his heavenly gifts characterized. We need to give him the appearance of our mortal flesh tatfreudige our love, in its weak human constituents, sometimes less if they comply with the position they occupy in the venerable body.

This grab such reliable and genuine love in our heart space and is growing daily, we must accustom ourselves to regard the Church of Christ himself. For Christ is living in his Church, who donates through her teaching, directing and sanctification. Christ it is, presents itself in different ways in different members of his community. Where this quest really looking for a lively spirit of faith determines the actions of all Christian believers, as they due consideration certainly not only the more prominent members of the Mystical Body of honor and due obedience, especially those who were commissioned by the divine head once to account for our souls (Heb. 13, 17), they will also take care of that himself, which was a particular love of our Redeemer: the weak, the wounded and sick, whether they require natural or supernatural healing, the children whose innocence today threatened so easily, the little soul as wax is malleable; arms at last, in which you want to recognize our love helping with deep pity the person of Jesus Christ himself.

So yes, the apostle warns rightly: "Much necessary are those members of the body, which appear as the weaker, and that which we look for the less respectable end, we bestow with richer jewelry" (1 Cor. 12, 22 - 23.) Aware of the high official duty imposed upon us, we believe these serious sentence today to have to emphasize again. is celebrated with great pain we experience it, and physically deformed, mentally deranged and inherited diseases as a burden of society are sometimes deprived of their lives, even as some see as a new invention of human progress and extremely charitable act. But which law Atlas does not see that such a view no less the natural and the divine, all hearts inscribed Act (S. Decret. Officii, Dec 2. 1940: AAS, 1940, p. 553rd), as the perception of any higher humanity Hohn speaks? The blood of those who are just because of our Savior more expensive, because they deserve more compassion, "cries from earth to heaven" (Gen. 4, 10).

This, however, that real love, what we need to see in the Church and her members of our Savior, not gradually wane, it is a great help if we look at Jesus as a supreme example of love for the church.

First and foremost, we want to imitate the vastness of his love. Certainly the only one bride of Christ: the Church. But the love of the divine bridegroom is so wide that it excludes no one and in a bride embraces the whole human race. For this reason, our Saviour who shed his blood to all people, however different they may be of any race and ethnicity, in his cross reconciled with God and some in one body. True love for the Church asks a question not only by us, that we stand up for each other as members of the same Leines (Gen. 4, 10), should be happy if another segment undergoes honor, and with its pain (1 Cor. 12 26th to sympathize), but that we also people who are not yet united in the body of the church with us, should be regarded as brothers of Christ in the flesh, which like us are called to the same eternal salvation. Unfortunately, there are today more than ever, people who brag arrogantly with hostility, hatred and envy, as this was a tremendous increase of human glory and human power. We see with pain the disastrous fruits of such principles before us. Let us therefore follow our prince of peace who taught us to love not only those who come from other people and blood as we (Luke 10, 33-37.), But even our enemies (Luke 6, 27-35; Mt 5, 44-48.). We want the comforting belief of the Apostle of the Gentiles deeply imbued with it the height and width, the grandeur and depth of the love of Christ sing (Eph. 3, 18). You can reduce the strain and no difference of manners, not an ocean with its huge tides inhibit dissolve no war, he was a just or unjust reason started.

In this difficult hour, Venerable Brother, rummaged through so much pain in the body, so much sadness the soul, all are called to such supernatural love. The forces of good men - we think particularly of those who pay in a variety of organizations to alleviate the suffering itself - should combine to create magnificent in emulation of kindness and compassion in such a huge relief of bodily and mental distress everywhere so shall the charitable vastness and infinite blessings of the mystical body of Christ shine.

The vastness of the love with which Christ, the church embraced equal to their persistent energy with which we should all be as eager and persistent to enclosures of the mystical body of Christ. There was no hour in the life of Christ from the Incarnation to which he laid the foundation for his church to the end of his mortal life in which he is not the formation and perfection of his church to the fatigue, though the Son of God was concerned with the shining example of his holiness, in sermons, dialogues, appeals, rules. It is therefore our wish, it would all recognize in the church her mother, eager to consider that active cooperation to the edification and growth of the Mystical Body of Jesus Christ according to the measure of their duty status of all members, not merely the servant of the sanctuary and those who were completely dedicated to God in religious life. We expect that this pay particular attention to those as they do already commendably, the loan to battle hordes of Catholic Action, the bishops and priests in their apostolic office help, and those who participate for the same purpose in the more religious associations. How meaningful and important to their efficient participation of all in the current situation is seen, everyone.

We must at this point not to mention the fathers and mothers, which our Savior has entrusted the delicate members of his mystical body. To her love for Christ and the Church's sake, we ask them dearly, with the greatest care to watch over them in trust passed to children and protect them from the many pitfalls of which they are now as easy prey.

In a particular way but our Saviour has revealed his burning love for the Church by the fervent prayers which he addressed to the Heavenly Father for them. As all know, Venerable Brethren, - just a lot to recall - just before the crucifixion He prayed with all my heart for Peter (Luke 22, 32), for the rest of the apostles (Joh.17 ,9-19. ) and then for those who would through the preaching of God's word to believe in Him (Joh.17 .20 to 23.).

Let us therefore implore every day, in imitation of the example of Christ the Lord of the harvest. He would send laborers into his harvest (Mt 9, 38, Luke 10, 2.) Every day we want our united prayers ascend to heaven to recommend God all members of the mystical body of Jesus Christ, especially the bishops, which the ministry is entrusted to their diocese, then the priests and religious, who, called to "share the Lord" to protect the homeland and in the realm of the heath divine Redeemer, increase and promote. No member of the venerable body of Christ we want to forget in our common prayer. Also let us remember that dearly, who feel the burden of earthly exile especially painful or if they are divorced from this life, cleaned in the purifying fire, and finally those who are introduced to the teachings of Christ only, so they as soon as possible in the water of Baptism find redemption.

We also hope fervently that common prayer should extend to the ardent love with himself, either illuminated by the truth of the gospel and not yet in the safe threshold of the church occurred, or which of us, who we without our merit, the body of Jesus Christ represented here on earth, separated by unfortunate schism in the faith and unity. Let's look for them the divine prayer of our Saviour to his father again in heaven: "At that all may be one as You, Father, are in me and I in thee, that they also may be one in Us, that the world may believe that You I have sent "(John 17, 21).

As you will be aware, Venerable Brethren, have we at the beginning of Our Pontificate also they do not belong to the visible communion of the Catholic Church, God's protection and recommended management and solemnly declared that to us, in imitation of the example of the Good Shepherd on nothing more heart, but that they also have life and have it in abundance (Pius XII. Summi Pontificatus: AAS, 1939, p. 419). We wish them our solemn assurance by this encyclical, the honor of "the great and glorious body of Christ" (Irenaeus, Adv Haer., IV, 33, 7: Migne, PG VII is dedicated to 1076th), repeat, after We have just asked for the prayers of the whole Church. All that and each of them with loving hearts, we invite you to comply with the internal drives of the divine grace freely and happily and to free themselves from a situation in which they of his own eternal salvation can not be sure (Pius IX, lam vos omnes, 13 Sept. 1868: Act. Conc. Vat, CL VII, 10). Because they may also consist of an unconscious longing and desires to stand out even in a relationship with the Mystical Body of the Redeemer, they still lack so many divine gifts and effective support, which one can enjoy only in the Catholic Church. Would they occur also in the circle of Catholic unity, and all united with us in the same communion of the body of Jesus Christ, turn to the main one in glorious love relationship (Gelas. I, Epist. XIV: Migne, PL LIX, 89 ). In ceaseless prayer to the spirit of love and truth We wait for them with open arms, not as strangers but as those who return home to her own father's house.

But even if it is our wish, it would constantly this common prayer of the whole Mystical Body at the earliest possible entry of all stray into a hurdle of Jesus Christ rise up to God, we must nevertheless stress that such must be done one step out of their own free will decision, since No one can believe that it does not voluntarily (August., In John Ev. tract., XXVI, 2: Migne, PL XXX, 1607.). So if people who do not believe, really be forced to enter the external construction of the church, to draw near to the altar and receive the sacraments, so this is certainly not a true Christian believer be (August., Ibid.). For faith, without which one can not possibly please God (Hebrews 11, 6) has an entirely free "gift of the intellect and will" (Conc. Vatican, Const. De fide cath., His cap 3.) . If, therefore, even be the case that someone 1351st against the constant teaching of the Apostolic See (Leo XIII, Immortale Dei: ASS, XVIII, pp. 174-175; Cod lur. Can., C.) against his will to Catholic would feel forced, so we must reject this in the consciousness of our official duties strictly. But because the people have free will and freedom to abuse because of their perverse inclinations and passions can also, only the father of the enlightenment they move effectively through the spirit of his beloved son to the truth. So if so many people unfortunately are still outside the truth of the Catholic faith and not submit to the rule of divine grace their freedom, this has its basis not only in that they themselves (August., Ibid.) But also that the faithful no more ardent prayers addressed to God for this grace. Always again, we repeat our warning about that all perform consistently in a burning love for the Church and the example of the Divine Saviour such prayers.

But this, too, is appropriate especially in today's situation, even necessary, that for kings and princes and all rulers, who can by their protection from the outside stand by the Church, is praying fervently, so that after production of a just order "of the peace as work of justice "(Is. 32, 17) inspired by love of God from the murky waters of the storm of the tired man show, and could lead the loving mother church of a peaceful and quiet lives in all godliness and purity (1 Tim. 2 , 2.) One must stop before God that it all leaders of the nations want to love wisdom (SAP, 6.23.) So that they never have the terrible Judgement of the Holy Spirit meet: "Questions are the Most High to euern works, and your thoughts He will interrogate, because you judged unfairly as Walter his power, the Articles of justice have not been observed, are not changed by God's will. Terrible and surprisingly, he will stand before you, for the hardest of the magistrates court was made. The young man is mercy given, the rulers are, however, struck violently. God spares not whether his rank, he is afraid of any size. The small and great, He has made them both, and equally to all extends his concern, but the stronger threat of greater punishment . you, her rulers is, that my word, that ye may learn wisdom and never ignored! " (Ibid, 6, 4-10.).

Christ the Lord has his love for his virgin bride, however, revealed not only through tireless work and persistent prayer, but also by the suffering and anguish that he took out of love for them to be voluntary. "Because he loved his family ... He loved them unto the end" (Jn 13, 1.) Only by His blood He has purchased the church (Acts 20, 28). So let us, as required to ensure our salvation, free to follow the bloody footsteps of our King, "because if we are united to the similarity with His death, we will also be with his resurrection" (Rom. 6, 5), and "if we have died with, we are also communal life" (2 Tim. 2, 11). This begs us both a real and active love for the Church and to the souls that she gives birth to Christ. While our Saviour deserves his Church through the bitter sufferings and bitter death, an almost infinite treasure of graces. But these graces are we destined by God's wise advice only to parts, or earlier than their lower abundance is not a little off by our good works, by the grace of God's grace donated rain is drawn down upon the souls of men. He is certainly in many stream abundance, if we not only pray diligently for God and participate especially at the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass, if possible daily devotion to alleviate not only in Christian duty to love the plight of so many needy try, but especially when we the perishable goods of this prefer the eternal world, if we carry this mortal body by voluntary penance in breeding hold him refuse illicit and even demand it hard and rough him: if we accept at last revealed the hardships and sufferings of this life as if from God's hand. So we will complete according to the word of the Apostle "in our flesh what is lacking in the sufferings of Christ for his body, the church" (Col. 1, 24).

As we write this, stands before our eyes, an almost infinite multitude of oppressed, we sympathize with their pain intimately. They are the sick, the poor, the crippled, the widows and orphans, and many who in their own suffering or the bear of themselves often to exhaustion. We encourage all of you with the love of a father, whatever that may be the reason for their suffering and tribulations, they may with confidence look up to heaven and their need to offer that they will donate once rich reward. May all remember that their patience is not vain, but they themselves and the church also brings great blessings if they take it upon himself left in such intention. For greater effectiveness of this intention will certainly immense amount of the daily renewed self to God in how they exercise the more pious members of that association, which is known as the Apostleship of Prayer. We make a point to recommend to the Lord as pleasing to the federal government in this regard warmly.

Should we combine already at any time to the salvation of souls our sufferings with those of the divine Redeemer, it must now, Venerable Brethren, all of an offer to be, however, the terrible war torch lies almost the whole world on fire and so much death, misery and creates distress. Likewise, it must now be in a special way for all one need of the hour, not to indulge in vice, the temptations of the world and the physical excesses, even of all earthly dross, which has no relevance to the Christian formation of the soul and for our heavenly ultimate goal to play. Rather, we need the serious words of Our immortal predecessor, Leo memorize the Great that we have been through the baptism of the flesh of the crucified Christ (Sermon LXIII, 6; LXVI, 3: Migne, PL LIV, 357 et 366th), and the beautiful prayer St. Ambrose: "Carry me (Christ) to your cross, which is useful for the Perplexed, in which alone is rest for the Wegesmüden, in which his own life for all who must die" (In Psalm 118, XXII , 30: Migne, PL XV, 1521.).

Before we close now, we feel forced us, again and again exhort all that they love the kindly Mother Church with a warm, active love. For their integrity and their rich, prosperous growth, let us offer our prayers every day to the Eternal Father, work and suffering, if we really the salvation of the whole human family at heart, redeemed by the divine blood. However, the racing clouds darken the sky, while the entire human society and the church itself threaten violent perils, let the Father of mercies to us and all our trust with the prayer: "Look down, O Lord, we pray that this Your family, for our Lord Jesus Christ without hesitation the hands of the executioner and gave himself Kreuzesqual took upon himself "(Rev. Maior. Hebd.).

May the Virgin Mother of God, Venerable Brethren, that our wishes, which are euern certainly also help to meet and pray for all a genuine love for the church! Your most holy soul was more than any change souls created by God from the divine spirit of Jesus Christ fulfilled. She has given its approval "in the name of the whole human nature," so that "took place between the Son of God and of human nature a kind of spiritual marriage" (p. Thom., III, q 80, a. 1.) It is Christ the Lord, who was already in her virginal womb umkrönt with the sovereignty of the main being on the Church, born in Miracles, the source of all heavenly life. It has the newborn to those who paid tribute to him from Jewish and Gentile country with the first worship, presented as prophet, king and priest. Your only-has had on their Mutterbitte "at Cana in Galilee," the miraculous signs on the way "his disciples believed in Him" (John 2, 11). She has, free of any personal or inherited debt and always associated with her son intimately Him offered at Calvary, together with the total victim of her mother's rights and her motherly love to the Eternal Father as new Eve for all children of Adam, the scarred by the sad case were. She was, previously head of our mother in body, now also based on a new title of the suffering and honor the spirit of the mother of all his limbs. It was she acquired through her powerful intercession, that the already bestowed on the Cross Christ on the day of Pentecost, the divine spirit of the newborn church was donated in wonderful gifts. She has at last in that it its nameless suffering bravely and confidently, contributed more than all the Christian faithful, as the true Queen of Martyrs, "adds what is lacking in the sufferings of Christ ... for His Body, the Church" (Col. 1, 24). It has the Mystical Body of Christ, born from the pierced heart of the Saviour was (Rev. SSMI Kordis in hymno ad Vespers.), With the same intimate mother's love and concern, accompanied with which she nurtured the infant Jesus in the manger and at her breast and fed .

Your Immaculate Heart We have dedicated trust all people. May they, the holy mother of all the members of Christ (Pius X, Ad diem illum: ASS XXXVI, p. 453), now beaming with heart and soul into heavenly glory, and the prevalent up there with her son, earnestly implore of Him, that rich streams flow down continuously from the sublime grace of the head on all members of the mysterious body. May it protect their effective advocacy, as in the past but today the church and get her and the whole of humanity at last peaceful days of God. Sustained by this supernatural hope, we donate as a pledge of heavenly graces and a witness of Our special benevolence to all of you and every individual. Venerable brothers, and the flock entrusted to each of you with all my heart the apostolic blessing.

Given in Rome, at St. Peter, 29 June,
on the feast of the Apostles Peter and Paul, in 1943,
the fifth of Our Pontificate.

Pius XII.

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